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The Periodic Table of Elements

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1 The Periodic Table of Elements
10th Grade Chemistry Mrs. Page

2 Who will memorize this song??? We shall see!
Who will memorize this song??? We shall see!

3 Dmitri Mendeleev 1869 Russian Chemist
Mendeleev organized the known elements based on atomic mass He predicted that the “gaps” on the periodic table were elements that had yet to be discovered

4 Periods Periods go across the table from left to right (rows)
Periods go across the table from left to right (rows) Periods are labelled from 1-7 Look at your Bohr model wkst – what is the pattern (trend) for each period? The period tells you how many electron orbitals an atom has!

5 Families or Groups Groups are the columns
Each group or family has similar characteristics Look at your Bohr model wkst what is the pattern for groups? The Group tells us the number of valence electrons

6 General Layout of the Periodic Table
Metals Nonmetals Metalloids

7 Properties of Metals Solid at room temperature (except Mercury )
Have Luster (shiny in appearance) Good conductors or heat and electricity Malleable (can be hammered into sheets) Ductile (can be pulled into wire) High Melting & Boiling Points High Density

8 Properties of Nonmetals
May be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature Do not conduct heat or electricity well (Poor Conductors) If solid, generally brittle Looks dull Low melting & boiling points Low density

9 Metalloids Share properties of both metals and non-metals
Semi-conductors – insulate and conduct (used in computer chips)

10 Families/Groups

11 Alkali Metals Group 1 Have 1 valence electron Oxidation number: +1
Extremely reactive metals Do not occur freely in nature Very soft (can cut with knife) Low melting/boiling points compared to other metals (transition metals) Low densities (compared to other metals) React with water explosively!

12 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 Have 2 valence electrons
Oxidation number: +2 Very reactive (but not as much as alkali metals) Not found free in nature Present in Earth’s crust High melting/boiling points Lower densities than transition metals

13 Transition Metals Groups 3 – 12
Contain subshells so electron configuration gets “messy” Valence electrons are in multiple shells Form multiple oxidation number depending on element (always cations) Have all the properties of metals High melting/boiling points High densities Iron, cobalt, and nickel, are the only elements known to produce a magnetic field.

14 Rare Earth Elements Pulled out of group 3 and placed at bottom of periodic table 2 periods: lanthanide series and actinide series Many are man-made elements Very difficult to isolate – found combined with each other

15 Boron Family Group 13 3 valence electrons
If they form ions their oxidation number is +3 All metals except Boron (metalloid)

16 Carbon Family Group 14 4 valence electrons
Made up of 2 metals, 2 metalloids and 1 nonmetal Due to half full valence shell these atoms tend to form covalent bonds (share electrons)

17 Nitrogen Family Group 15 5 valence electrons Oxidation number: -3
Made up of 1 metals, 2 metalloids and 2 nonmetal

18 Oxygen Family Group 16 6 valence electrons Oxidation number: -2
Made up of 1 metals, 1 metalloids and 3 nonmetal

19 Halogen Family Group 17 7 valence electrons Oxidation Number: -1
Extremely reactive “Halogen” means “salt-former” these elements form salts when bonded to other elements (mostly alkali or alkaline earth metals) All are non-metals Exist in all three states of matter

20 Noble Gases Group 18 8 valence electrons (except He)
Full valence shells NOT reactive Rarely form compounds All gases at room temperature

Distinguish between periods and groups Explain how group number and valence electrons are related (tell the number of valence electrons in each group) Explain how period number and electron shells are related Describe how metallic properties change across a period and down a group (hint: where are the metals on the periodic table? Look at Carbon or Nitrogen families to determine trend down a group.) Describe the properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids Determine how reactivity changes down a group and across a period Determine the oxidation number of an element Describe the general characteristics of each family

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