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GORD & Peptic ulcers Dr Alex Timperley FY2. Objectives Aetiology Signs & symptoms Investigations Management Complications Example cases.

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Presentation on theme: "GORD & Peptic ulcers Dr Alex Timperley FY2. Objectives Aetiology Signs & symptoms Investigations Management Complications Example cases."— Presentation transcript:

1 GORD & Peptic ulcers Dr Alex Timperley FY2

2 Objectives Aetiology Signs & symptoms Investigations Management Complications Example cases

3 Background

4 Dyspepsia

5 Non-specific group of symptoms related to the upper GI tract Differentials; Functional dyspepsia GORD PUD CA Gallstones Pancreatitis IBS ACS AAA

6 Alarm symptoms GI bleed Weight loss Dysphagia Iron deficiency anaemia Persistent vomiting Epigastric mass (Suspicious barium meal) **if any of the above refer for urgent (2ww) endoscopy for patients of ANY age

7 Endoscopy findings; 40% functional/non-ulcer dyspepsia 40% GORD 13% PUD 2% gastric cancer 1% oesophageal cancer


9 ‘condition which develops when reflux of the stomach contents causes troublesome symptom/complications’ *dysfunction of the lower oesophageal sphincter Risk factors; Hiatus hernia Pregnancy/obesity Large meals Smoking, alcohol Drugs; calcium channel blockers, anticholinergics, nitrates

10 Symptoms ‘heartburn’ Epigastric or Chest pain Acid brash & waterbrash Odynophagia, dysphagia Extra-oesophageal; Nocturnal asthma Chronic cough Laryngitis

11 Investigations ECG; if retrosternal/chest pain Bloods OGD; mucosal break or normal (ENRD) 24 hour oophagia pH monitoring +/- manometry Treatment Life style changes Drugs; Antacids, PPIs, H2 antagonists, prokinetic Surgical; Nissen fundoplication

12 Complications Oesophagitis Benign stricture Barrett’s oesophagus Normal oesophageal squamous epithelium is replaced by gastric columnar epithelium; metaplasia Premalignant ~ 40 fold increase risk of adenocarcinoma

13 Peptic ulcer disease

14 Risk factors H. Pylori NSAIDs (block PGs that stimulate mucus + HCO) Alcohol Severe stress Smoking Steroids Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastrin secreting adenoma Usually pancreatic 50% malignant

15 H. Pylori Spiral shaped Gram negative urease secreting bacteria 10-15% of the UK pop Rates increase with age bacterium converts human urea to ammonia to neutralise the acid around itself Ammonia raises pH locally, around the pH ‘sensors’; reduces somatostatin release (usually inhibits gastrin + histamine realise)….leading to excess acid production Chronic gastritis Gastric carcinoma

16 Symptoms Asymptomatic Epigastric pain - DU; worse when hungry & night - GU; worse when eating Nausea Weight loss (GU)

17 Investigations Bloods ECG CXR, AXR Stool test; H. Pylori antigen Urea breath test; swallow urea labelled with C13, measure CO2. Serological IgG for H. Pylori (not for eradication) OGD; biopsy + urease test

18 Management Lifestyle changes Acid reduction Eradication therapy - Test + treat; if H. Pylori +ve, triple therapy; 1.PPI 2.Clarithromycin 3.Amoxicillin or metronidazole

19 Complications Perforation Bleeding Gastric outflow obstruction Malignancy

20 Case 1 Sally 49, 2/12 Hx of epigastric discomfort; worse on lying down, bending & especially bad after her am coffee. Her weekly trips to the Indian restaurant have stopped + she has had to change her diet. a)Give 2 red-flag symptoms you would ask? weight loss, dysphagia, melena, symptoms of anaemia

21 b) Name 4 risk factors for GORD Smoking, ETOH, obesity, pregnancy, hiatus hernia, spicy foods c) All Ix are normal. Suggest 2 medical Rx for GORD. Gaviscon (alkali), Ranitidine, Omeprazole, Metoclopramide d) Give 2 complications of GORD Stricture, Barrett’s, CA

22 Case 2 Greg 78, several months Hx worsening epigastric pain, worse when eating, partly relieved by antacids. a)What is the most likely diagnosis Gastric ulcer disease b)Give 3 causes H.pylori, NSAIDs, alcohol, smoking, Zollinger-Ellison

23 c) Give 2 methods to identify H.pylori Urea breath test, stool antigen, OGD + histology, serological test for IgG abs d)What is the Rx for H.pylori? PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin/metronidazole e)Give 3 complications Perforation, haemorrhage, CA, pain, GOO, pain, anaemia

24 My hints for finals Learn pharmacology well! Practice with patients!! Practice all exams…including; ankle, ophthalmology, developmental examination, squint! Its all about the process!!! Don’t worry if you don’t know the diagnosis

25 References oxford handbook of medicine complete SAQs for medical finals – Stather, Cheshire et al. Dyspepsia: Managing dyspepsia in adults in primary care, NICE Clinical Guideline (2004) Dyspepsia: Managing dyspepsia in adults in primary care

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