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Presentation on theme: "Joints."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints

2 Articulations Joint A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth

3 Structural Classification
Presence of synovial cavity? Type of connective tissue?

4 Types of Joints based on Structure
Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

5 Fibrous Fibrous connective tissue Lack a synovial cavity

6 Cartilaginous Cartilage Lack a synovial cavity

7 Synovial Dense irregular connective tissue Acessory ligaments
Synovial Cavity present

8 Functional Classification
Degree of movement they permit

9 Type of Joints Based on Function
Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis

10 Synarthrosis Immovable joint

11 Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joint

12 Diarthrosis Freely movable joints All are synovial joints

13 Three types of Fibrous Joints
Sutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses

14 Suture A fibrous joint composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that unite skull bones only.

15 Suture Synarthrosis (immovable)

16 Suture Example: coronal suture


18 Syndesmoses A fibrous joint


20 Syndesmoses More distance between bones than sutures

21 Syndesmoses Fibrous connective tissue arranged as a ligament (bundle) or interosseous membrane (sheet)

22 Syndesmoses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)

23 Syndesmoses Example: distal tibiofibular joint

24 Gomphosis A fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket


26 Gomphosis Articulation between roots of teeth and sockets of the maxillae and mandible.

27 Gomphosis Dense fibrous connective tissue is the periodontal ligament

28 Gomphosis Synarthrosis (immovable joint)

29 Types of Cartilaginous Joints
Synchondroses Symphyses

30 Synchondroses Hyaline cartilage


32 Synchondroses Synarthrosis (immovable joint)

33 Synchondroses Example: epiphyseal plate and first rib and manubrium of sternum

34 Symphyses Fibrocartilage connects the bones


36 Symphyses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)

37 Symphyses Example: pubic symphysis

38 Synovial Joints All diarthrosis


40 Synovial Joints Contain Synovial Cavity (presence of space between articulating bones)

41 Synovial Joints Ends of bones covered by articular cartilage

42 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints
Encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones


44 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints
Fibrous capsule – outer layer composed of dense connective tissue

45 Articular Capsule of Synovial Joints
Synovial membrane – inner layer composed of areolar connective tissue

46 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint
Fluid in the joint cavity secreted by fibroblasts of the synovial membrane


48 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint
Reduces friction

49 Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint
2. Supplies nutrients and removes wastes from chondrocytes within articular cartilage

50 Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial Joint
Extracapsular ligaments – lie outside the articular capsule (Fibular and Tibular Collateral Ligaments)

51 Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial Joint
Intracapsular ligaments – occur within the articular capsule (Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament)

52 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints
Fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones

53 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints
Allow two bones of different shapes to fit more tightly

54 Articular Discs of Synovial Joints
Directs flow of synovial fluid to the areas of greatest friction

55 Types of Synovial Joints
Planar Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and Socket

56 Planar Articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved


58 Planar Permits side to side and back and forth gliding movement

59 Planar Example: intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicle, acromioclavicular, sternocostal, vertebrocostal

60 Hinge Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone


62 Hinge Monoaxial

63 Hinge Examples: knee, elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal

64 Pivot Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed by another bone and ligament


66 Pivot Monoaxial

67 Pivot Example: radioulnar joint

68 Condyloid Convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone


70 Condyloid Biaxial

71 Condyloid Example: wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints

72 Saddle Articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped, and the other bone fits into the saddle


74 Saddle Biaxial

75 Saddle Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

76 Ball and Socket Consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone


78 Ball and Socket Multiaxial

79 Ball and Socket Example: shoulder and hip joints

80 Torn Cartilage The tearing of articular discs or menisci in the knee.
Occurs among athletes

81 Sprains This occurs when a joint is twisted and stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.

82 Sprains Ankle joint and lower back are commonly sprained

83 Dislocation The displacement of a bone from joint, with resultant tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules

84 Dislocation The shoulder joint is the most common joint dislocated due to shallowness of the socket.

85 Dislocation Hip joint not common due to acetabular rim is smaller than the head of the femur

86 Shoulder Joint Glenohumeral joint

87 Shoulder Joint Ball and socket joint

88 Shoulder Joint Head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula


90 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features
Glenoid labrum – A narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity.


92 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features
Glenoid labrum deepens and enlarges the glenoid cavity

93 Shoulder Joint / Anatomical Features
Bursae – fluid filled saclike structures that reduce friction in synovial joints


95 Shoulder Joint / Movements
Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction

96 Shoulder Joint / Strength
Attains most support from the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) which join the scapula to the humerus

97 Shoulder Joint / Strength
Rotator cuff muscles hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity

98 Elbow Joint Hinge joint

99 Elbow Joint Involves the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the head of the radius

100 Elbow Joint / Movements
Flexion and extension

101 Hip Joint Ball and socket

102 Hip Joint Head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone

103 Hip Joint / Anatomical Features
Acetabular labrum – Fibrocartilage rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum.


105 Hip Joint / Anatomical Features
Acetabular labrum enhances the depth of the acetabulum

106 Hip Joint / Movements Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation of the thigh

107 Knee Joint One synovial cavity

108 Knee Joint 3 joints

109 Knee Joint 1. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus, and lateral condyle of the tibia

110 Knee Joint 2. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the medial condyle of the femur, medial meniscus, and medial condylye of the tibia

111 Knee Joint 3. Patellofemoral joint – planar joint/ between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur

112 Knee Joint / Anatomical Features
Medial meniscus and Lateral meniscus


114 Knee Joint / Anatomical Features
Contains bursae


116 Knee Joint Flexion, extension, slight medial rotation, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position

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