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Articulations Joint A point of contact between two bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bone and teeth
Structural ClassificationPresence of synovial cavity? Type of connective tissue?
Types of Joints based on StructureFibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
Fibrous Fibrous connective tissue Lack a synovial cavity
Cartilaginous Cartilage Lack a synovial cavity
Synovial Dense irregular connective tissue Acessory ligamentsSynovial Cavity present
Functional ClassificationDegree of movement they permit
Type of Joints Based on FunctionSynarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis
Synarthrosis Immovable joint
Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joint
Diarthrosis Freely movable joints All are synovial joints
Three types of Fibrous JointsSutures Syndesmoses Gomphoses
Suture A fibrous joint composed of dense fibrous connective tissue that unite skull bones only.
Suture Synarthrosis (immovable)
Suture Example: coronal suture
Syndesmoses A fibrous joint
Syndesmoses More distance between bones than sutures
Syndesmoses Fibrous connective tissue arranged as a ligament (bundle) or interosseous membrane (sheet)
Syndesmoses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)
Syndesmoses Example: distal tibiofibular joint
Gomphosis A fibrous joint in which a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket
Gomphosis Articulation between roots of teeth and sockets of the maxillae and mandible.
Gomphosis Dense fibrous connective tissue is the periodontal ligament
Gomphosis Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Types of Cartilaginous JointsSynchondroses Symphyses
Synchondroses Hyaline cartilage
Synchondroses Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Synchondroses Example: epiphyseal plate and first rib and manubrium of sternum
Symphyses Fibrocartilage connects the bones
Symphyses Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)
Symphyses Example: pubic symphysis
Synovial Joints All diarthrosis
Synovial Joints Contain Synovial Cavity (presence of space between articulating bones)
Synovial Joints Ends of bones covered by articular cartilage
Articular Capsule of Synovial JointsEncloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulating bones
Articular Capsule of Synovial JointsFibrous capsule – outer layer composed of dense connective tissue
Articular Capsule of Synovial JointsSynovial membrane – inner layer composed of areolar connective tissue
Synovial Fluid of the Synovial JointFluid in the joint cavity secreted by fibroblasts of the synovial membrane
Synovial Fluid of the Synovial JointReduces friction
Synovial Fluid of the Synovial Joint2. Supplies nutrients and removes wastes from chondrocytes within articular cartilage
Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial JointExtracapsular ligaments – lie outside the articular capsule (Fibular and Tibular Collateral Ligaments)
Accessory Ligaments of the Synovial JointIntracapsular ligaments – occur within the articular capsule (Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament)
Articular Discs of Synovial JointsFibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones
Articular Discs of Synovial JointsAllow two bones of different shapes to fit more tightly
Articular Discs of Synovial JointsDirects flow of synovial fluid to the areas of greatest friction
Types of Synovial JointsPlanar Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball and Socket
Planar Articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved
Planar Permits side to side and back and forth gliding movement
Planar Example: intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicle, acromioclavicular, sternocostal, vertebrocostal
Hinge Convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone
Hinge Examples: knee, elbow, ankle, and interphalangeal
Pivot Rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed by another bone and ligament
Pivot Example: radioulnar joint
Condyloid Convex oval-shaped projection of one bone fits into the oval-shaped depression of another bone
Condyloid Example: wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints
Saddle Articular surface of one bone is saddle shaped, and the other bone fits into the saddle
Saddle Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
Ball and Socket Consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone
Ball and Socket Multiaxial
Ball and Socket Example: shoulder and hip joints
Torn Cartilage The tearing of articular discs or menisci in the knee.Occurs among athletes
Sprains This occurs when a joint is twisted and stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.
Sprains Ankle joint and lower back are commonly sprained
Dislocation The displacement of a bone from joint, with resultant tearing of ligaments, tendons, and articular capsules
Dislocation The shoulder joint is the most common joint dislocated due to shallowness of the socket.
Dislocation Hip joint not common due to acetabular rim is smaller than the head of the femur
Shoulder Joint Glenohumeral joint
Shoulder Joint Ball and socket joint
Shoulder Joint Head of the humerus and glenoid cavity of the scapula
Shoulder Joint / Anatomical FeaturesGlenoid labrum – A narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity.
Shoulder Joint / Anatomical FeaturesGlenoid labrum deepens and enlarges the glenoid cavity
Shoulder Joint / Anatomical FeaturesBursae – fluid filled saclike structures that reduce friction in synovial joints
Shoulder Joint / MovementsFlexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction
Shoulder Joint / StrengthAttains most support from the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) which join the scapula to the humerus
Shoulder Joint / StrengthRotator cuff muscles hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity
Elbow Joint Hinge joint
Elbow Joint Involves the trochlea of the humerus, the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the head of the radius
Elbow Joint / MovementsFlexion and extension
Hip Joint Ball and socket
Hip Joint Head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone
Hip Joint / Anatomical FeaturesAcetabular labrum – Fibrocartilage rim attached to the margin of the acetabulum.
Hip Joint / Anatomical FeaturesAcetabular labrum enhances the depth of the acetabulum
Hip Joint / Movements Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation of the thigh
Knee Joint One synovial cavity
Knee Joint 3 joints
Knee Joint 1. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus, and lateral condyle of the tibia
Knee Joint 2. Tibiofemoral joint – hinge joint/ between the medial condyle of the femur, medial meniscus, and medial condylye of the tibia
Knee Joint 3. Patellofemoral joint – planar joint/ between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur
Knee Joint / Anatomical FeaturesMedial meniscus and Lateral meniscus
Knee Joint / Anatomical FeaturesContains bursae
Knee Joint Flexion, extension, slight medial rotation, lateral rotation of leg in flexed position
Joints & Their Function
Articulations and body movements
Where bones come together.
Chapter 9 Joints Joints hold bones together but permit movement
Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Skeletal System Joint Notes Joints perform two functions Hold bones together Allow rigid skeleton some flexibility so movement can occur.
Joints of the Skeletal System
Joints. Joint (AKA Articulation) A point of contact between bones, between cartilage and bone or between teeth and bone.
Ch. 9 Joints.
Suzanne D'Anna1 Joints or Articulations. Suzanne D'Anna2 Structural Classification l Based on: - presence or absence of a joint cavity between bones -
Anatomy of Bones and Joints
Part 2: Support & Movement
Joints and Movements Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H.
ARTICULATIONS Joints between bones Hold bones firmly to each other Permit movement Classified by degree of movement (range of motion) and type of substance.
JOINTS (Arthrology) Flexible connective tissue form joints that hold bones together ,while still permitting some motion A joint, also called articulation.
Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D. 6.January.2014 Monday CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS 1.2. STABILITY OF JOINTS 1.3. JOINT VASCULATURE AND INNVERVATION.
Joints & Movements.
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