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The Musculo-Skeletal System

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Presentation on theme: "The Musculo-Skeletal System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Musculo-Skeletal System

2 Why Both? This system includes both skeletal and muscular systems because they need each other to function properly

3 The Skeletal System The skeleton is important because:
It supports our body It stores minerals It allows us to move It protects our internal organs It makes blood cells

4 What are bones? Bones are living tissue
Inside bones is a soft tissue called marrow New blood cells made by the marrow inside Contain nerve endings (sense pain) Lightweight and strong

5 Types of Bones There are two types of bones: compact and spongy
Compact Bone: hard outer layer of bones gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton.

6 Types of Bone Spongy Bone
Made up of compounds that make the bone lightweight Allows room for blood vessels and marrow


8 Groups of Bones Bones are divided into groups Flat Long Short

9 Groups of Bones Flat The purpose of flat bones is to protect important organs and to provide a flat surface muscle attachment. Include: the cranium (skull), scapula (shoulder blade), sternum (breast bone), pelvis, ribs and hip bone

10 Types of Bones Long The bone is longer than it is wide (that’s how it is classified) Growth plates at the end that are covered with cartilage Include: femur, tibia and humerus

11 Types of Bones Short Bones that are as wide as they are long
Provide stability and support Do not move a lot Carpals and Tarsals (bones in wrists and feet)

12 Types of Bones Irregular
Have their own category because they do not have distinct shape Include bones in your jaw and vertebrae (backbone)

13 Cartilage Tough and flexible Found in the nose, outer ear and joints
Prevents cushioning and stops bones from rubbing together Minerals added to cartilage makes bone

14 Tendons A tough band connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Can only exert a pulling force When a muscle moves, the tendon pulls and moves the bone

15 Ligaments Tissue that connects bones to other bones to form a joint (like elastic bands) Prevents bones from moving at a joint and are important in preventing dislocation


17 Joints Are the points of our skeleton where two bones meet
Every joint contains cartilage, tendons and ligaments Cartilage coats the ends of the bones Ligaments attaches two bones together Tendons attach muscles to the bones

18 Types of Joints There are 3 types of joints
Fixed – does not allow movement Partially Movable – allows a little movement Movable – allows complete movement

19 Partially Movable Joints
Allows a very little movement by the bones Ex. The joints between our vertebrae

20 Fixed Joints The bones are tightly locked together so no movement occurs Ex. Joints found in the skull

21 Movable Joints Ball and Socket – allows movement in almost all directions. One rounded end of the bone fits into the socket end of another bone Ex. Hips and shoulders

22 Movable Joints Hinge Joint – allows movement in only one direction like a door Ex. Elbows, knees fingers and toes Pivot Joint – allows movement from side to side A bone rests and rotates on one spot back and forth Ex. Neck, elbow and knees (also hinge joints)

23 Movable Joints Gliding Joint – where several bones come together like a puzzle and can slide past one another Ex. Wrists and ankles

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