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International Law Types of law systems –Common law –Code law –Islamic law –Communism Definition: –Treaties, customs, recognized principles when one country.

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Presentation on theme: "International Law Types of law systems –Common law –Code law –Islamic law –Communism Definition: –Treaties, customs, recognized principles when one country."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Law Types of law systems –Common law –Code law –Islamic law –Communism Definition: –Treaties, customs, recognized principles when one country deals with another –Bilateral –Multilateral

2 LESCANT Factors Language Environment & Technology Social organization Contexting Authority Nonverbal behavior Time Concept

3 Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 Adopted in 53 countries, including U.S. Similar to UCC

4 Treaties and International Trade Organizations WTO/GATT –Outlaws tariff discrimination –Most favored nation status –Outlaws nontariff barriers –Caps tariffs

5 Treaties and International Trade Organizations UNCITRAL –United Nations Commission on International Trade Law –36 countries –Proposes ‘model laws’ for uniformity

6 Treaties and International Trade Organizations EU –European Commission Education Health Culture Consumer protection –Council of Ministers –European Parliament –Court of Justice –Euro –Antitrust laws similar to Sherman Act

7 Treaties and International Trade Organizations NAFTA –All tariffs to be eliminated in 15 years Can be “snapped back” if US is overrun with imports or imports cause harm Duty free if 100% North American origin –Environment Left to each nation if not arbitrary or unjustifiably discriminatory Regulations must be “necessary” to protect life Regulations must be based on “scientific principles” No mention of genetic engineering

8 Treaties and International Trade Organizations U.S. International Trade Commission –6 appointed commissioners with 9 year terms –Advises president on preferences (lower tariffs) –Industries petition ITC –Import interference with agricultural programs –Keeps track of unit labor costs by country –Special 301 International theft of U.S. intellectual property Identifies “priority foreign countries” May impose sanctions

9 International Courts No real enforcement International Court of Justice (World Court) –Established by UN –Nation v. Nation –Voluntary agreement to have case heard –Not bound by the decisions –Not for business disputes

10 International Courts European Court of Justice –Enforces EU law –Member nations, EU institutions, other parties & businesses v. member nations –Enforcement by national courts

11 International Courts WTO dispute resolution –Trade disputes between member nations –May order retaliatory trade sanctions

12 International Arbitration Organizations –American Arbitration Association –International Chamber of Commerce –UN Commission on International Trade Law Arbitrator issues award –No enforcement power Enforcement only if: –Nation is signatory of UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

13 International Law Principles Sovereign immunity –Equality of countries –Each country sovereign nation –No country subject to another’s laws without consent –International commercial transactions are voluntary – subjects country’s government to civil suits

14 International Law Principles Expropriation –Act of State Doctrine –Recognizes as valid acts by other nations even if illegal in US –Usually challenged when private property is nationalized

15 International Law Principles Protections of US property –Foreign Assistance Act of 1962 – Hickenlooper amendment President can punish nations that expropriate private US property Actual expropriation Effective expropriation –Clauses in trade treaties –Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) Federal insurer – premiums based on risk Countries where per capita income is $250 or less Confiscation, insurrection, repatriation, war, revolution

16 International Law Principles Repatriation –Some nations limit repatriation –Acts of state Forum non conveniens –Cases must be brought under the correct jurisdiction

17 Conflicts of Law No 2 countries have the same laws The parties may choose which law applies By default, the laws of the country of contract performance apply

18 Protections in International Competition Antitrust laws –US Law All US firms All firms operating in the US Firms whose business has substantial impact on US trade Who can sue –U.S. & foreign governments –U.S. & foreign businesses –Any other injured party

19 Protections in International Competition Export Trading Company Act of 1982 –Allows Jvs between competitors when outside the US –Must show the firm will not: Substantially lessen competition or restrain trade in the U.S. or restrain export trade of a competitor Cause unfair competition Affect the price of goods/services in the U.S. Resell the exported goods in the U.S.

20 Protections in International Competition Helms-Burton Act –1996 –Punishment for firms that use confiscated U.S. property Executives and families may not enter U.S. Allows suits against those companies Targeted at Cuba

21 Protections in International Competition Intellectual Property –International agreements being negotiated –Gray Market goods Goods with U.S. intellectual property protection are are foreign made & imported without consent of U.S.trademark holder –Outlawed by U.S. Customs Service Criminal Law –Individuals and businesses are subject to host country’s criminal law

22 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Applies to all businesses registered under SEC Illegal to use mails or interstate commerce for bribes Shareholders, officers, directors –5 years in prison –$100,000 fine Business penalty – up to $2 million Exceptions –Grease payments –Bribes to non-government foreigners –Extortion payments –Payments that are legal within he host country

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