Presentation on theme: "5.00 Understand Promotion. 5-150 5-152 Research Distinguish between basic and applied research (i.e., generation of knowledge vs. solving a specific."— Presentation transcript:
5-150 5-152 Research Distinguish between basic and applied research (i.e., generation of knowledge vs. solving a specific problem). Explain why business professionals need to be able to distinguish between good and bad research activities. Research costs money and that money comes from the company’s profits Investing in good research can improve the company’s options for the future Bad research is a waste of money and time
Research Discuss limitations business professionals face regarding applied research (e.g., time constraints, financial constraints, complex decision-making environment). Explain how researchers can create errors in a research project. Discuss how interviewers contribute to errors in research design.
Research Explain how respondents contribute to errors in research design. Respondents don’t always answer truthfully and sometimes are confused by the questions Describe how sampling errors affect data quality. Picking the wrong sample means that the findings will not properly apply to the whole population Discuss how non-response errors affect data quality. Non-responses mean that information is missing and can skew the results
Research Explain how coverage errors affect data quality. Coverage errors arise from failure to cover adequately all components of the population being studied failure to include specified units in the conduct of a survey (undercoverage), and inclusion of some units erroneously (overcoverage) http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=466 Describe how measurement errors affect data quality. Measurement error is the variation between measurements of the same quantity on the same individual Discuss how processing errors affect data quality. Transcription errors in recording the answers Improper analysis of the data collected
5-153 5-155 Questionnaires Identify factors that can impact respondents when answering questionnaires (e.g., differences in the characteristics being measured, response styles, ambiguous questions, personal factors such as fatigue, surveyor’s actions, environment in which the survey is completed, presence of others when survey completed, physical aspects of the questionnaire such as spacing provided).
Questionnaires Explain potential problems with the questions on a questionnaire (e.g., unfamiliar terminology, vague or imprecise terms, complex sentence construction, misleading or incorrect assumptions, imprecise or unqualified verbs, vague noun-phrases).
Questionnaires Describe how questions on a questionnaire should be sequenced. Logically and logically grouped if dealing with multiple topics With an understanding that the responder learns and makes assumptions based on the order and phrasing of questions Discuss how questions on a questionnaire should be written to elicit valid responses. Clearly stated and appropriate phrasing for the audience Mix open ended and close ended Use skip sequencing Avoid jargon, acronyms and technical terms
Questionnaires Identify factors that create a poor quality question (e.g., unanswerable, presenting multiple concepts within one question, leading questions). Explain steps to follow to evaluate questionnaire design. Will the questionnaire address the issue? Is it clear and concise? Are the instructions adequate? Will it elicit valid and reliable responses? Is there any bias? Does it work for all respondents? Demonstrate procedures for evaluating questionnaire design. “Pilot” test the survey
Questioning the Questionnaire Page 5-155 1.Did you detect any differences in the characteristics being measured? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what did you see? 2.Did you notice any differences in the response styles? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what did you see? 3.Were there vague/ambiguous questions included? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what were they? 4.Was adequate spacing provided on the questionnaire? ___ Yes ___ No Explain. 5.Did the questionnaire contain unfamiliar terminology? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what were the terms? 6.Were any questions worded so that they were too complex to answer? ___ Yes ___No If yes, which sentences?
Questioning the Questionnaire 7.Did you detect any imprecise or unqualified verbs? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what verbs? 8.Were there any vague noun-phrases? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what noun-phrases? 9.Were there any misleading/incorrect assumptions in the questions? ___ Yes ___ No If yes, what were they? 10.Were the questions properly sequenced in the questionnaire? ___ Yes ___ No Explain. 11.Were the questions written to elicit valid responses? ___ Yes ___ No Explain. 12.Did you detect any other problems with the questions/questionnaire? Explain.
5-156 5-158 Research Considerations Identify characteristics of “good” marketing research. Answers the question(s) for which it was designed Limits or eliminates bias in the answers Can be effectively analyzed Discuss the benefit of using multiple methods to acquire data. Can verify results Some methods work better with specific types of people Can reach more people
7 Characteristics of Good Marketing Research 1. Effective marketing research uses the principles of the scientific method — observation, hypothesis, prediction, and testing 2. Good marketing research develops innovative ways to solve a problem 3. Reliable marketing research uses multiple methods to acquire data and shy away from over-reliance on any one method 4. Savvy marketing researchers recognize the interdependence of research models and the data collected
7 Characteristics of Good Marketing Research cont. 5. Smart marketers understand the relationship between the value of information and its cost 6. Good marketing researchers show little reliance upon glib or stereotyped assumptions made by managers about how a market works 7. Responsible marketing research is a win-win- win situation. It shows a healthy respect for the company, the product and the customers and never tries to harm or take advantage of customers
Research Considerations Explain why marketing researchers should follow the scientific method to conduct their research. Limits bias Accurate answers Results can be reproduced Describe why marketing researchers must consider the value of information and its cost. Research costs money (profits) The cost must be justified by the results
Research Considerations Explain the need to evaluate the appropriateness of marketing research for the problem/issue identified. Garbage in = Garbage out, the wrong research will result in poor answers and a bad solution Discuss the need to evaluate the clarity of the research question. Focus on one topic per question Everyone should understand the question the same way Must be tied to the topic being studied
Research Considerations Explain the need to ensure the appropriateness of the research methodology (study design, sampling, data collection, measurement, and analysis) for the research objectives/questions. Methods must match the respondents and problem being addressed Quick and simple? More complex? Pick the appropriate delivery method.
Research Considerations Describe the importance of clearly stated findings. The results of the research must be understood by those implementing the changes in the company Discuss the need to evaluate the appropriateness of the conclusions and recommendations based on the research question/study purpose. Were the results logically and properly concluded based on the research? Is there real data to support the findings?
Research Considerations Demonstrate procedures for assessing the appropriateness of the marketing research for the problem/issue. Pilot test the design and the results Are the findings valid and reliable?