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Emotional and Social Development of Infants Chpt 8.

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1 Emotional and Social Development of Infants Chpt 8

2 Sect 1 Understanding Emotional Dev of Infants p253 Objectives: Compare and contrast emotional and social development. Explain the importance of attachment to emotional development. Relate the care an infant receives to emotional development. Analyze people according to different temperament traits. Explain how the emotional environment in the home can affect a baby’s development

3 Key Terms Emotional dev Social dev Attachment Failure to thrive Temperament Colic Reflux

4 Emotional Dev The process of learning to recognize and express feelings and establish a unique personal identity. Helps you be confident

5 Social Dev The process of learning self expression and how to interact with others. Helps you communicate with others, Helps you listen to different views before acting, Helps you show tolerance for others

6 Influences on Emotional and Social Dev The bond between caregiver and child The temperament of the child The atmosphere of the home

7 Emotions in Infancy p254 Develop gradually 5 Basic emotions Interest1 month Sadness1 ½ months Disgust5 months Joy5 ½ months Anger9 ½ months

8 Building Bonds of Attachment p255 Attachment = bond between child and caregiver Physical contacts help build attachments (holding, cuddling, being near you) Crucial to emotional dev

9 Study with monkeys by Harry Harlow Made 2 monkey-shaped forms out of chicken wire and soft cloth. The baby monkeys clung to the “mothers” made of soft cloth, even if the chicken wire “mothers” had their bottles..

10 Harryrry Harry Harlow

11 Conclusion Monkeys need to feel physical closeness as well as receive feedings Attachment requires more than physical contact. –As the baby monkeys grew, they didn’t know how to relate to other monkeys (normal social relationships) Inability to interact normally is caused by lack of interaction with mothers

12 Erik Erikson, psychologist The first year of life is when infants learn to trust or mistrust the world. Love and affection from caregivers create a sense of trust Healthy attachments helps children have healthy, loving relationships later in life The first few months are the most important in forming attachments but they continue to grow until about age 2.

13 Something to Ponder What about children adopted after age 2? What kind of attachment do they have to their adoptive parents? Why are adoption agencies taking so long to place children?

14 Communication p256 Signs of growing attachment to caregivers Respond to caregiver’s voice Respond to facial expressions Maintain eye contact Stop crying when needs are met: food, water, diaper change, warmth, cuddling Gaze into the eyes of caregivers Track movements of caregivers As they mature, they respond verbally to caregivers and hug caregivers Eventually crawl or walk to caregivers

15 Lack of Contact p256 Failure to thrive = condition in which babies fail to grow and develop properly If their emotional and physical needs are not met, they fail to thrive If left alone except for basic physical care, they may not respond to people –Cries weaken –Smiles fade –Become withdrawn –May even have a blank look –As adults – may be unable to develop caring, meaningful relationships

16 Lack of Contact Affects Brain Development Neglected children who did not receive love, touch, and opportunities for learning had brains 20-30% smaller than the average

17 Lack of Contact p256 Affects Response to Stress Cortisol, a hormone released in stressful situations. Infants who are given loving care produce a lower amount of cortisol when faced with a frightening or confusing situation than those who had not been raised in a comforting environment. What inferences can you made about emotional development based on this info?

18 Lack of Contact p256 Romanian Orphanage 1990s children were suffering from failure to thrive. They received little personal attention and were rarely touched in a caring way. They improved when placed in loving homes

19 Building Trust Through Care p258 If needs are met and baby has bonding contact with adults, they feel the world is a comfortable place and feel secure.

20 Things that don’t make infants feel comfort, trust: Being made to conform to a rigid schedule of feedings Crying brings no comfort Caregivers aren’t consistent in responses Schedules that change too often Caregivers are impatient one time and patient the other

21 To develop trust: Follow a predictable routine (don’t have to be rigid) Get to know the baby –Nurture –Hold –Learn the likes and dislikes –Anticipate hunger, tiredness, boredom Bond with the baby –Talk in a soft, positive tone –Smile and establish eye contact Meet baby’s needs –Physical, social, emotional

22 Temperament p258 A person’s unique nature that determines how you react to others and the world. 9 Temperament traits: (Each child has each trait to a greater or lesser degree)

23 Temperament Traits 1. Intensity –Highly intense – cry loudly, powerful responses, –Less intense - opposite 2. Persistence(How determined are they to complete an action) Persistent children –May be upset if they can’t finish a project Less persistent children –Can easily be persuaded to start a new activity –Accepts “no” for an answer

24 Temperament Traits 3. Sensitivity Highly sensitive may be: –Fussy eater, –May complain about uncomfortable clothing, –May be bothered by sights, sounds

25 Temperament Traits 4. Perceptiveness Perceptive children –Are aware of all that is around them. –Can be easily distracted –Have a hard time following directions that involve several steps Less perceptive children –Less likely to notice what is going on around them –Can follow through with tasks

26 Temperament Traits 5. Adaptability Low adaptability –Resist change High adaptability –Aren’t bothers by surprises

27 Temperament Traits 6. Regularity (Do they follow regular patterns?) Highly regularity –Get tired and go to sleep at the same time each evening –Go to the bathroom at about the same time –Get hungry at about the same time Low regularity –Each day’s schedule is different

28 Temperament Traits 7. Energy High-energy –Physically active –Squirm when sitting –Prefer running Low-energy –Move less

29 Temperament Traits 8. First Reaction Some dive right in and are open to new activites Some hold back and watch what others do first. They are less comfortable in unfamiliar situations.

30 Temperament Traits 9. Mood Cheerful Cranky Positive Negative If the parent’s temperament is opposite the child’s you have to find creative ways to deal with it.

31 Research birth order. Find out the characteristics of children who are born first, middle, and last. Do you believe your birth order as affected your emotional development? Why or Why not?

32 Crying and Comforting p261 Check the following: Hungry Wet/dirty Hot/cold Needs burped In pain

33 If none of the above are a problem try the following Cuddle with baby Rock Change the baby’s position Talk softly or sing to the baby Offer a toy to distract baby Stroke or gently rub baby’s back

34 Colic Condition where the baby cries and cries Occurs between 6 pm and midnight Worse at about 6 weeks Not sure what causes but might be related to food Simethecone is a medicine they give babies to soothe them Rules of 3 ( docs diagnose based on the following) Cries inconsolably 3 times a week For more than 3 hours a day For 3 weeks

35 Reflux Colic-like condition where food rises in the throat Cries continually Simethecone may be used Elevating the head of the bed may help Don’t turn baby upside down Don’t bounce baby too much May sure they are at a 45 degree angle

36 Thumb Sucking and Pacifiers p264 Babies usually stop sucking thumbs around 7 months old or when teeth appear Can cause problems in the development in the roof of the mouth if goes on too long American Academy of Pediatrics think pacifiers are ok –Use correct size and shape based on age –Wash frequently –Never tie around baby’s neck or hand –Use for self-soothing not food

37 Section 2 p266 Understanding Social Development of Infants

38 Objectives: Identify signs of social development in infants. Describe how social behavior is learned. Explain the importance of play and how it affects social development Analyze the relationship of play and exploration.

39 Key Terms Stranger anxiety Play environment Cause and effect

40 Signs of Social Dev As with physical dev there are developmental milestones / steps etc See chart on page 268-269

41 Stranger Anxiety Fear of unfamiliar people, usually expressed by crying, pouting, worried look. Develops between 6-12 months of age It may be toward people they haven’t see at all, people they haven’t seen in awhile, or people they see in an unusual place

42 Ways to handle stranger anxiety Act welcoming toward the new person Encourage friends and relatives to speak softly to the baby and let them get used to them. Never force a baby to be held by an unfamiliar person Stay close to the baby Let the baby set the timetable for adjusting to a stranger Have people approach slowly Keep the baby’s routine as regular as

43 How Behavior is Learned p270 They learn better with positive responses –Ex: Smiles bring hugs Clear consistent messages Don’t laugh at things they shouldn’t be doing because they are “cute” Don’t frown when expressing love

44 Social Dev Through Play p270 Play strengthens all areas of dev Find age appropriate play / toys / activities or baby may be frustrated or uninterested

45 Play Play Environment = comfortable space with no dangers and with safe and interesting toys Wash new toys and wash them often

46 Play & Exploration Different Between Exploration and Play p273 Cause and Effect = one event (effect) is caused by another Babies do a lot of this –Examples: Emptying drawers Dropping things on the floor repeatedly Repeating actions over and over

47 Review Chpt Test



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