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Chapter 12: Word- Learning Strategies

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1 Chapter 12: Word- Learning Strategies
Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2nd edition

2 Research on Word-Learning Strategies
Word-learning strategies can help students to determine meanings of unfamiliar words independently and transfer the strategies to other words. Effective word-learning strategies include how to use dictionaries to confirm and deepen knowledge of word meanings; use morphemic (word-part) analysis to derive meaning; use contextual analysis to infer meanings of words in text.

3 When to Teach Morphemic analysis is appropriate for
students beginning at fourth grade. Instruction in compound words, word families, and simple affixes begins by second grade. Vocabulary can be acquired through use of context clues in reading and listening. Beginning in Kindergarten, teachers can model the use of context clues when reading aloud. By grades 2 and 3, students begin learning to use context clues independently. Middle grade students (grades 4-8) may begin using a combination of morphemic and contextual analysis. An example of the integration of morphemic and contextual analysis is found in The Vocabulary Strategy (Baumann et al 2005) p. 501.

4 When to Assess and Intervene
Assessment that is tied to the instruction will provide better information about students’ specific learning of word learning strategies. The multiple-choice format of most standardized tests can also provide a more global measure of vocabulary. What is central to word-learning strategy assessment is a process such as thinking aloud or self-evaluation, that reveals the student’s metacognitive thinking.

5 Dictionary Use Mechanics of using a dictionary
finding an entry alphabetically using guide words separating words into syllables using pronunciation keys Translating dictionary definitions into word knowledge finding the appropriate definition to fit the context confirming and deepening knowledge of a word

6 Morphemic Awareness Key instructional elements in morphemic analysis include Root words and word families: teaching root word and its derived forms; Compound words: contain two free morphemes that stand alone as two word parts; Greek and Latin Roots: bound morphemes that cannot stand alone as words in English; Cognate Awareness: words in two languages that share a similar spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Root words and word families examples on page 524 Compound words examples on page 521 Common Greek and Latin Roots on page 494 Cognates: Words in two languages that share a similar spelling, pronunciation and meaning. Cognate examples English, Spanish: doctor, doctor; family, familia False cognates English, Spanish: pan, pan (bread) red, red (net)

7 Contextual Analysis Types of helpful context clues in text
Definition: direct definition within the sentence. Appositive: a word or phrase that defines or explains a word that precedes it. Synonym: a word or phrase that is similar in meaning. Antonym: words that mean the opposite or in contrast. Example: several words or ideas as examples General: non-specific clues to meaning Types of unhelpful context clues in text Misdirective: direct reader to incorrect meaning Nondirective: do not direct reader to any particular meaning of the word Definition: signal words: is, are, means, refers to Appositive: set off by commas Synonym: signal words: also, as, like, similarly, resembling Antonym: signal words: in contrast, instead of, unlike, however Example: signal words: for instance, for example, including, such as See chart on pg. 546 for an additional explanation of the example and general types of helpful context clues

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