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Paige Rohrig Georgia Tech Research Institute 404-407-8082.

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1 Paige Rohrig Georgia Tech Research Institute 404-407-8082

2 “Other” Hazards at Grain Handling Facilities Machine Hazards Fall Hazards Energy Source Hazards / Lockout-Tagout (LOTO) Introduction

3 Machine Hazards in Grain Handling

4 Point of operation Mechanical power transmission Other moving parts Where machine hazards occur:

5 In-Running Nip Points Belt and pulley Chain and sprocket Rack and pinion Rotating cylinders

6 Prevent contact - prevent worker’s body or clothing from contacting hazardous moving parts Secure - firmly secured to machine and not easily removed Protect from falling objects - ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts Create no new hazards - must not have shear points, jagged edges or unfinished surfaces Create no interference - must not prevent worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably Allow safe lubrication - if possible, be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards Requirements for Safeguards

7  Physical Guards  Devices  Location/Distance Methods of Machine Safeguarding

8 Fixed - Provides a barrier - a permanent part of the machine, preferable to all other types of guards Interlocked - When this type of guard is opened or removed, the tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shuts off or disengages, and the machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place. Adjustable - Provides a barrier which may be adjusted to facilitate a variety of production operations Self-adjusting - Provides a barrier which moves according to the size of the stock entering the danger area. Guards

9  One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by the point of operation, in-going nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Machine Guarding 29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1)

10 The following must be guarded if 7 feet or less from the floor or working platform: Horizontal, vertical and inclined shafting Pulleys Horizontal belts Chains and sprockets Projecting shaft ends must present a smooth edge and end and can not project more than ½ the diameter of the shaft unless guarded by non-rotating caps or safety sleeves Machine Guarding

11 Belts and Pulleys More guarding needed

12 Machine Guarding Which Screw Auger is guarded?

13  (a)(1) – Floor hole: 1”  (a)(2) – Floor opening: >12” in least dimension  (a)(10) - Wall hole: 1”high  (a)(11) - Wall Opening:  30” H &  18”W Fall Hazards – Definitions (1910.21) Receiving Pit with a missing grate

14 Sufficient safe clearance maintained where mechanical handling equipment is used Aisles and passageways kept clear and in good repairs No obstruction across or in aisles that could create a hazard Permanent aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked Aisles

15 Floor load ratings must be posted in a conspicuous place to which they relate Floor Loading

16  Every stairway floor opening must be guarded by a standard railing  Railing must be provided on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway) Floor Openings

17 Every pit and trapdoor floor opening, infrequently used, guarded by a floor opening cover of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap opening constantly attended by someone or protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings. Floor Openings

18  Every ladderway floor opening or platform must be guarded by a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening), with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening Floor Openings YES! NO!

19 Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by one of the following: Rail, roller, picket fence, half door, or equivalent barrier Wall Openings

20  Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level must be guarded by a standard railing on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder  All open-sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, guarded with a standard railing and toe board Open-sided Floors

21  The railing must be provided with a toeboard wherever, beneath the open sides,  (i)Persons can pass,  (ii)There is moving machinery, or  (iii)There is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard Open-sided Floors toeboard

22  A standard railing consists of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts  Have a vertical height of 42 inches nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor  The top rail smooth- surfaced  The ends of the rails shall not constitute a projection hazard Railings

23  Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings or standard handrails  A stair railing shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread. Stairways

24  The completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail. Railings 200 lb.

25 Specific Features Rungs & Cleats Metal ladders: minimum diameter ¾”  Wood ladders: minimum diameter 1 1/8”  Where corrosion/rusting: minimum diameter 1” or painted {27(b)(7)(i) Distance between rungs: 12” Minimum length of rungs between side rails: 16” Clearances In back of ladder: not < 7” Fixed Ladders

26 Special Requirements Cages or Wells Provided on ladders > 20’ to maximum 30’L Cages extend down ladder not 8’ above base of ladder Landing Platforms  Ladder with cage: for each 30’H  Ladder/no cage: for each 20’H Ladder safety devices may be used in lieu of cages on towers, water tanks, and chimney ladders. No Landing platform is required in these cases. Fixed Ladders



29  Receiving-pit feed openings, such as truck or railcar receiving-pits, must be covered by grates  The width of openings in the grates shall be a maximum of 2 1/2 inches Receiving Pits / Grate Openings



32 Lockout/Tagout covers: The servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment Normal production operations where employees by-pass guard(s) or employees place any part of their body in a hazardous area Does NOT cover: Construction, agriculture, and maritime Normal production operations (subpart O) Cord-and-plug under the control of employee (written procedure still required) Exposure to electrical conductors (subpart S and electrical safety-related work practices) Lockout/Tagout

33 Key Requirements for Lockout/Tagout Develop and implement a written program in compliance with 29 CFR 1910.147 Perform training Develop equipment specific procedures for equipment being serviced or maintained by employees Do periodic inspections on the equipment specific procedures at least annually Lockout/Tagout

34  Unguarded sweep augers must not be energized in a grain storage bin while a worker is inside the bin  Letter of Interpretation: ment?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27419 Lockout/Tagout

35 Case Study Review Case Study: Farmer falls to his death from grain bin ladder 21-Year-Old Electrocuted While Moving Grain Auger Based on the OSHA requirements, what measures could have been taken to prevent these fatalities? Questions?

36 OSHA’s Grain Handling Safety Page: OSHA’s General Industry Regulations: OSHA’s e-tools: NIOSH FACE program: OSHA’s Interpretative Letters: m?p_doc_type=INTERPRETATIONS&p_toc_level=0& p_keyvalue= m?p_doc_type=INTERPRETATIONS&p_toc_level=0& p_keyvalue References

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