Presentation on theme: "Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage"— Presentation transcript:
1 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H.
2 Learning Objectives You should be able to: Describe the general features and functions of the vertebral column.Identify and describe the special features of the vertebrae in different regions of the vertebral column and discuss the functional significance of the regional differences.Describe the anatomy of the sternum and ribs and how ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae.Compare and contrast scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis.Explain herniated disc of lower back as to structural and functional involvement.
3 Vertebral Column vertebrae and intervertebral discs vertebral groups 7 cervical in the neck12 thoracic in the chest5 lumbar in lower back5 fused sacral4 fused coccygealSpine exhibits one continuous C-shaped curve, Known as primary curvature at birth
4 Adult Spinal Curvatures S-shaped vertebral columnSecondary curvatures develop several months after birthlifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature.walking upright develops lumbar curvature.
5 Abnormal Spinal Curvatures ___ – abnormal lateral curvature of spine___ - is a hump- backed, from osteoporosis or abnormal vertebral growth___ - bending backward or swayback, from weak abdominal musclesa. kyphosis b. scoliosis c. lordosis d. stenosis
6 General Structure of Vertebra Vertebral BodyVertebral foramenVertebral arch2 lamina2 pediclesProcessesspinous, transverse and articular
7 Intervertebral Foramen and Discs _____ - passageway for nerves._____ - absorb shock_____ - condition that caused pressures on spinal nerve or cord, may be due to sudden, traumatic injury or repeated minor injuriesa. herniated discb. intervertebral discc. intervertebral foramend. transverse foramen
8 Typical Cervical Vertebrae Body ___; Vertebral foramen ___; Spinous process (C2 to C6) ___; transverse processes short with ___ for protection of vertebral vessels.a. large b. small c.transverse foramen d. bifid/forkedC7 is called vertebra prominens (spinous process ends in broad tubercle)___ vertebrae have small bodies increasing the possibilities of dislocations and fractures.a. thoracic b. lumbar c. sacral d. cervical
9 The Unique Atlas and Axis Atlas (C1) supports the skullconcave superior articular facetnod your head in “yes” movementvertebral foramen, with anterior and posterior archesno vertebral body and spinous processAxis (C2)Dens (odontoid process) is held in place inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas by transverse ligamentsallows rotation of head -- “no”
10 Typical Thoracic Vertebrae Body ___; Vertebral foramen ___; Spinous process ___, not split, points inferiorly; Transverse processes with facets for ___ articulations, superior articular facets face posteriorly.a. small b. medium-sized c. rib articulations d. long/slender
11 Lumbar VertebraeBody ___; Vertebral foramen ___; Spinous process ___, points posteriorly; Transverse processes short, ___.Superior articular processes face mediallyLumbar region resistant to twisting movementsa. smallest b. large c. no transverse foramen d. blunt/broad___ vertebrae have massive bodies and are weight bearing which contribute to common site of ruptured disc.
12 Sacrum 5 sacral vertebrae fused Attaches the axial skeleton to the pelvic girdleSacral promontory – landmark in females during pelvic exam and labor/deliveryAnterior surfacesmooth and concavesacral foraminanerves and blood vessels4 transverse lines indicate line of fusion of vertebraePosterior surface- sacral crests provide attachment of muscles
13 Coccyx Single, small bone Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floor 4 vertebrae fusedCo1 to Co4Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floorCornuahornlike projections on Co1 for ligaments attach coccyx to sacrum___ What bone is fractured by fall or during childbirth?a. sacrum b. coccyxc. pelvis d. symphysis pubis
14 Thoracic Cage Consists of: sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae. Functions: attachment site for pectoral girdle and protects viscera.Sternum made up of: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process.12 pairs of ribs: ___ true ribs; ___ false ribs; ___ floating ribs.a. 11th-12th pairsb. 8th-10th pairsc. 1st-7th pairsWhat bone is commonly fractured in doing a CPR? ___.
15 Rib Structure Flat blade called a shaft inferior margin has costal groove for nerves and vesselsProximal head and tubercle are connected by neckArticulation- head with body of vertebrae, tubercle with transverse process
16 Homework (Self- Review) Describe the distinctive characteristics of typical cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae as to location, vertebral body, vertebral foramen, spinous process, transverse processes, and functions.Compare and contrast spinal abnormalities in lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis.Identify specific bones associated with the following.a) vertebral prominens, b) dens, c) costal cartilages, d) xiphoid process, e) transverse foramina, e) tail bone4. Explain why is the cervical vertebrae are more prone to fractures and dislocations rather than other regions of the vertebral column.5. Discuss herniated disc of the lower back as to structural and functional involvement.6. What is easily broken in doing a CPR and why?