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Chapter 3 Climates of the Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Climates of the Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Climates of the Earth

2 Earth – Sun Relationships
I. Section I Earth – Sun Relationships

3 A. Climate & Weather Weather & Climate are not the same!
Climate is what you expect & weather is what you get!

4 B. Earth’s Tilt and Rotation
Axis – imaginary line running from pole to pole Earth rotates around this Makes one rotation every 24 hours Makes Day & Night Earth is tilted at approx. 23 ½ degrees Tilt affects climate of a place

5 C. Earth’s Revolution The Earth’s journey around the sun
One revolution = 365 ¼ days Causes seasons Seasons are reversed north & south of the equator Example: It is now summer in Australia Around March 21, the sun’s rays fall directly on the Equator – equinox – equal night – daylight & nighttime hours are equal. In the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the first day spring

6 D. The Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn
Know this section well (pg )! Solstice – Sun’s direct rays are shining on one of the two tropic lines 23 ½ N – Tropic of Cancer – Summer in N. Hemisphere – June 21st 23 ½ S – Tropic of Capricorn – Winter in N. Hemisphere – December 22nd

7 E. The Poles Dramatic differences in sunlight here!
6 months = constant sunlight 6 months = little to no sunlight

8 F. The Greenhouse Effect
Look at diagram on pg. 70 Earth’s atmosphere is like the glass in a greenhouse Traps the sun’s warmth even in the cold weather Global Warming – rise in atmospheric CO2 levels Caused by human activities Burning of coal, oil, and natural gas

9 Factors Affecting Climate
II. Section II Factors Affecting Climate

10 A. Latitude & Climate Low Latitudes High Latitudes Middle Latitudes
Between the Tropic Lines (near the equator) Called the Tropics High Latitudes Polar Areas North of the Arctic Circle South of the Antarctic Circle Middle Latitudes Between the Tropic of Cancer & Arctic Circle Between the Tropic of Capricorn & Antarctic Circle Most variable weather exists here Draw a diagram that includes the labels above

11 Latitude Diagram Low Middle High

12 B. Elevation and Climate
Elevation influences climate, regardless of the level of latitude Increased altitude = air thins Thin air = less heat retained

13 C. Wind & Ocean Currents Wind & water combine w/the effects of the sun to influence weather & climate Wind Patterns Winds blow in fairly consistent patterns – prevailing winds – map on pg.60 Coriolis Effect – causes winds to blow diagonally The Horse Latitudes Why are they called this??? Doldrums – windless areas near the Equator Ocean Currents Just like the wind, cold and warm streams of water (currents), move through the oceans El Nino Periodic change in the pattern of ocean currents & water temperature

14 D. Landforms & Climate Landforms alter climate Example: Mountains
KNOW DIAGRAM ON PG. 64!!! Windward Leeward Rain shadow Draw a diagram on your notes that includes the terms above!

15 World Climate Patterns
III. Section III World Climate Patterns

16 A. Climate Regions Tropical Climates
Two – Tropical Rain Forest (hot & wet throughout the year) & Tropical Savanna (dry winters & wet summers) Found in the low latitudes (Tropics)

17 Climate Regions (cont.)
Dry Climates Two types – desert (dry w/ sparse plant life) & steppe (dry, largely treeless grasslands) Occur in many parts of the world

18 Climate Regions (cont.)
Mid-Latitude Climates Four - Marine west coast, Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Humid Continental Read pg. 68 – What climate do we have?

19 Climate Regions (cont.)
High Latitude Climate Two – Subarctic & Tundra Brrrrrrr!!! Permafrost found here

20 Climate Regions (cont.)
Highlands Climate Elevation can determine climate regardless of the latitude! Mts. = cooler

21 B. Climatic Changes Climate changes over time because of many reasons – many which are unknown! Humans and how they treat the Earth have a lot to do with it!

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