2 Earth – Sun Relationships I. Section IEarth – Sun Relationships
3 A. Climate & Weather Weather & Climate are not the same! Climate is what you expect & weather is what you get!
4 B. Earth’s Tilt and Rotation Axis – imaginary line running from pole to poleEarth rotates around thisMakes one rotation every 24 hoursMakes Day & NightEarth is tilted at approx. 23 ½ degreesTilt affects climate of a place
5 C. Earth’s Revolution The Earth’s journey around the sun One revolution = 365 ¼ daysCauses seasonsSeasons are reversed north & south of the equatorExample: It is now summer in AustraliaAround March 21, the sun’s rays fall directly on the Equator – equinox – equal night – daylight & nighttime hours are equal.In the Northern Hemisphere, this marks the first day spring
6 D. The Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn Know this section well (pg )!Solstice – Sun’s direct rays are shining on one of the two tropic lines23 ½ N – Tropic of Cancer – Summer in N. Hemisphere – June 21st23 ½ S – Tropic of Capricorn – Winter in N. Hemisphere – December 22nd
7 E. The Poles Dramatic differences in sunlight here! 6 months = constant sunlight6 months = little to no sunlight
8 F. The Greenhouse Effect Look at diagram on pg. 70Earth’s atmosphere is like the glass in a greenhouseTraps the sun’s warmth even in the cold weatherGlobal Warming – rise in atmospheric CO2 levelsCaused by human activitiesBurning of coal, oil,and natural gas
9 Factors Affecting Climate II. Section IIFactors Affecting Climate
10 A. Latitude & Climate Low Latitudes High Latitudes Middle Latitudes Between the Tropic Lines (near the equator)Called the TropicsHigh LatitudesPolar AreasNorth of the Arctic CircleSouth of the Antarctic CircleMiddle LatitudesBetween the Tropic of Cancer & Arctic CircleBetween the Tropic of Capricorn & Antarctic CircleMost variable weather exists hereDraw a diagram that includes the labels above
12 B. Elevation and Climate Elevation influences climate, regardless of the level of latitudeIncreased altitude = air thinsThin air =less heat retained
13 C. Wind & Ocean CurrentsWind & water combine w/the effects of the sun to influence weather & climateWind PatternsWinds blow in fairly consistent patterns – prevailing winds – map on pg.60Coriolis Effect – causes winds to blow diagonallyThe Horse LatitudesWhy are they called this???Doldrums – windless areas near the EquatorOcean CurrentsJust like the wind, cold and warm streams of water (currents), move through the oceansEl NinoPeriodic change in the pattern of ocean currents & water temperature
14 D. Landforms & Climate Landforms alter climate Example: Mountains KNOW DIAGRAM ON PG. 64!!!WindwardLeewardRain shadowDraw a diagram on your notes that includes the terms above!
15 World Climate Patterns III. Section IIIWorld Climate Patterns
16 A. Climate Regions Tropical Climates Two – Tropical Rain Forest (hot & wet throughout the year) & Tropical Savanna (dry winters & wet summers)Found in the low latitudes (Tropics)
17 Climate Regions (cont.) Dry ClimatesTwo types – desert (dry w/ sparse plant life) & steppe (dry, largely treeless grasslands)Occur in many parts of the world
18 Climate Regions (cont.) Mid-Latitude ClimatesFour - Marine west coast, Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Humid ContinentalRead pg. 68 – What climate do we have?
19 Climate Regions (cont.) High Latitude ClimateTwo – Subarctic & TundraBrrrrrrr!!!Permafrost found here
20 Climate Regions (cont.) Highlands ClimateElevation can determine climate regardless of the latitude!Mts. = cooler
21 B. Climatic ChangesClimate changes over time because of many reasons – many which are unknown!Humans and how theytreat the Earth have alot to do with it!