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CE 370 Disinfection.

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Presentation on theme: "CE 370 Disinfection."— Presentation transcript:

1 CE 370 Disinfection

2 Disinfection Definition: is the process of destruction of living pathogenic microorganisms Disinfection depends on: The physico-chemistry of the disinfectant The cyto-chemical nature and physical state of the pathogens The interaction of the above Temperature pH Electrolytes Interfering substances

3 Classification of Disinfectants
Oxidizing agents (ozone, halogens) Cations of heavy metals (silver, gold, mercury) Organic compounds Gaseous agents Physical agents (heat, UV, pH)

4 Disinfection Rate Disinfection rate by a chemical agent obeys Chick’s Law: dN/dt = rate of cell destruction (number / time) k = rate constant N = number of living cells remaining at time t k depends on: Microorganisms species Disinfectant nature Disinfectant concentration Environmental factors (pH and temperature)

5 Disinfection Rate Another equation is:
C = concentration of disinfectant at time t = 0 tc = time of contact required to kill a given percentage of the microbes K, n = exponential constants n depends on the nature of disinfectant If n > 1, then disinfection greatly depends on the concentration of the disinfectant If n < 1, then disinfection greatly depends on the time of contact K depends on type of microorganism and environmental factors such as pH and temperature



8 Disinfection Methods Chlorination Chlorine dioxide Ozonation
UV irradiation High pH Other halogens (iodine and bromine)

9 Chlorination Chlorine is widely used Chlorine is applied as:
Effective at low concentration Cheap Forms residual if applied in sufficient dosages Chlorine is applied as: Gas (most common) hypochlorite Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent It oxidizes enzymes necessary for metabolism

10 Chlorination Reaction
Chlorine gas reacts with water to form Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) Hydrochloric acid (HCl) Hypochlorous acid dissociates to hypochlorite ion The dissociation of the HOCl is a function of pH

11 Chlorination Reaction
Hypochlorite salts Are available in dry form They should be dissolved in water OCl-1 seeks equilibrium with H+ ion Therefore, acid may be needed to be added Both hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions are effective disinfectants


13 Chlorination Reaction
Reaction with ammonia At pH > 6.0, the monochloramine predominates At pH about 5.0, the dichloramine predominates Chloramines are effective against bacteria but not viruses


15 Chlorination Reaction
Reaction with organics Reaction with phenol produces chlorophenols Reaction with humic substances produoces trihalomethanes Chloroform (CHCl3) Bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br) Dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2)

16 Dosages, Demand and Residuals
Dosage: the amount of chlorine added Demand: the amount of chlorine needed to oxidize materials Residual: the amount of chlorine remaining after oxidation



19 Dosages, Demand and Residuals
Contact time When increased, more microorganisms are killed When increased, the demand increases When increased, the amount of chlorinated by-products increase (if precursors are available) Free chlorine residuals Chlorine gas + hypochlorous acid + hypochlorite ion Combined chlorine residuals Chloramines + other chlorine reactive forms

20 Dosages, Demand and Residuals
Free chlorine residuals are faster acting than combined residuals Free chlorine residuals have greater disinfecting capacity than combined residuals (especially for viruses)

21 Dechlorination Chlorinated effluents can have negative impacts on receiving environment Chemicals used for dechlorination include: Sulfur dioxide (most common) Sodium sulfite Sodium bisulfite Sodium thiosulfate Hydrogen peroxide ammonia

22 Dechlorination Activated carbon is:
Well established in the dechlorination process It has limited use due to its high cost Requires long contact times It can be used for dechlorination and removal of organic compounds at the same time

23 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) General characteristics Gas Colorless
Has strong pungent odor Neither flammable nor explosive With sufficient moisture, it is corrosive to most metals Has solubility in water of 18.6% at 32 F (0 C) When reacts with water, it forms a weak solution of sulfurous acid (H2SO3) Sulfurous acid dissociates as follows:

24 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Free and combined chlorine forms react readily with sulfite ion (SO3-2) as follows: Required mass ratio of sulfur dioxide to chlorine is 1.1:1

25 Ozonation General characteristics of ozone Ozone production O3
Powerful oxidant More powerful than hypochlorous acid Unstable in aqueous solutions Has a half-life of 20 to 30 minutes in distilled water Widely used in drinking water treatment Is produced on-site and can not be stored Ozone production Air is refrigerated to remove moisture (-40 to -60 C) Air is dried through desiccants (silica gel and activated alumina) Air is passed between oppositely charged plates





30 Ozonation Performance
Some investigators reported total destruction of polioviruses in distilled water at a dose of 0.3 mg/l and a contact time of 3 minutes Presence of SS may increase the dose and contact time For good results, SS should not be very high Ozone is never used as a terminal treatment (no residual ozone)

31 Ozonation Advantages When compared to chlorination:
Ozone degrades to O2, so no toxic residues O2 level in effluent is usually at saturation Does no increase TDS in effluent Less cost with pure oxygen activated sludge process Ozone has been used to remove phenols, cyanides and heavy metals Ozone can render some refractory organics biodegradable

32 Current Research Trends
Identification of byproducts of the reaction of ozone with organic materials Ozone reaction with pesticides may produce a more toxic material

33 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)
ClO2 was originally used to remove taste and odor from water General characteristics of ClO2 More powerful oxidant than chlorine Does not react with water Can be easily removed from water by aeration Readily decomposed by exposure to UV radiation Does not react with ammonia Maintains a stable residual

34 Preparation of ClO2 Acid and sodium chlorite
Chlorine gas and sodium chlorite (excess chlorine) Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite

35 Applications of ClO2 Disinfection
ClO2 has longer lasting residual than HOCl In wastewater, ClO2 use is limited to phenolic wastes and the control of sulfide in wastewater collection systems ClO2 does not produce measurable amounts of THMs (trihalomethanes) or TOXs (total organic halogens) Cost of equipment and sodium chlorite are high

36 Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation
Was used in drinking water disinfection In wastewater treatment, and when compared to chlorination and Ozonation, UV was found More effective More economical UV irradiation is gaining prominence

37 Advantages and Disadvantages of UV
Advantages (in wastewater treatment) Effective in pathogen inactivation Ability to achieve disinfection goals Viable applications to wide range of wastewater qualities Cost effective Relative simplicity Absence of residuals Disadvantages (in water treatment) Lack of residuals

38 Types of UV Installations
There are two types: Overhead bulb radiating downward through a shallow depth of water (2.5 to 5.1 cm) Submerged UV lamb encased in a quartz tube The submerged type was found more effective The efficiency of the process is not significantly affected by turbidity and suspended solids UV performs well with viruses

39 Performance of UV Irradiation
Dose-response for three organisms showed similar trends: y = log reduction x = log UV dose Dose (D) = radiation intensity  detention time

40 Performance of UV Irradiation
For total and fecal coliforms: D = 24,800 x – 60,000 (fecal coliforms) D = 20,000x – 48,200 (total coliforms) Where x = log reduction


42 High pH Treatment Lime can destruct bacteria at high pH values
In this case, no residual will remain after neutralization Studies showed that higher removal of viruses was obtained with higher pH values Optimum pH in the range of 11.2 to 11.3 Optimum contact time in the range of 1.56 to 2.40 hours Complete destruction of viruses was obtained at pH of 11.0 and contact time of 5.0 hours and 10 minutes

43 High pH Treatment The process requires an additional residual disinfectant (minimum amount) High pH treatment can also remove ammonia and phosphorous Recarbonation of the treated water might be needed before discharge Lime stabilization of sludge is implemented at pH of 12 for 30 minutes (higher destruction of bacteria at higher pH values) No information about viruses Little effect on parasites

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