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Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations

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1 Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations
Mgmt 371 Chapter Fifteen Basic Elements of Individual Behavior in Organizations

2 Understanding Individuals in Organizations
The Psychological Contract The overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what he or she will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return. The unwritten expectations that employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationships Quid pro quo Loosely defines what actions are “fair” in the workplace. Both tangible items and intangible items can affect the psychological contract.

3 Psychological Contracts (Employee Expectations)
Generally, employees expect employers to provide: Competitive wages Competitive benefits Job security Career development opportunities Flexibility to balance family and work If the psychological contract is not altered, the employer may expect greater employee commitment (loyalty).

4 Psychological Contracts (Employer Expectations)
Generally, employers expect employees to provide: Effort. Ability. Loyalty. Skills. Time. Competencies.

5 Factors Adversely Affecting Individual & Organizational Relations
Mergers and acquisitions Self-employment and contingent work Less management job tenure Job insecurity (economic anxiety) Downsizing Global competition Job obsolescence Executive pay v. the plight of the workers.

6 Understanding Individuals in Organizations (Person-Job Fit)
The Person-Job Fit Reasons for poor person-job fit: Organizational selection procedures are imperfect. Both people and organizations change over time. Adopting new technologies changes the skills needed by employees. Each individual is unique and each job is unique.

7 Understanding Individuals in Organizations (Individual Differences)
Personal attributes that vary from one person to another. Physical Psychological Emotional.

8 Personality and Individual Behavior
The relatively stable set of psychological and behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another.

9 The “Big Five” Personality Traits
Agreeableness—a person’s ability to get along with others. Conscientiousness—the number of goals on which a person focuses. Negative emotionality—the extent to which a person is calm, resilient, and secure. Extraversion—a person’s comfort level with relationships. Openness—a person’s rigidity of beliefs and range of interests.

10 The “Big Five” Model of Personality

11 The Myers-Briggs Framework
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A popular questionnaire that some organizations use to assess personality types. Is a useful method for determining communication styles and interaction preferences. Has questionable validity and reliability. Personality Types Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I) Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N) Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F) Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)

12 Other Personality Traits at Work
Locus of Control (J.B. Rotter) The extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them. Internal locus of control—individuals who believe they are in control of their lives. External locus of control—individuals believe that external forces dictate what happen to them.

13 Other Personality Traits at Work
Self-Efficacy (Albert Bandura) A person’s belief about his or her capabilities to perform a task. High self-efficacy individuals believe they can perform well while low self-efficacy individuals doubt their ability to perform.

14 Other Personality Traits at Work
Authoritarianism The extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are appropriate within hierarchical social organizations. Machiavellianism Behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of others.

15 Other Personality Traits at Work
Self-Esteem The extent to which a person believes she/he is a worthwhile individual. Risk Propensity The degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions.

16 Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence, or EQ The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills. Dimensions of EQ Self-awareness Managing emotion Motivating oneself Empathy Social skill

17 Attitudes and Individual Behavior
Attitudes - Complexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people. Attitudinal components: Affective component Feelings and emotions toward a situation (i.e., how we feel). Cognitive component Perceived knowledge (i.e., why we feel the way we feel). Intentional component Expected behavior in a given situation (i.e., what we intend do about the situation).

18 Attitudes and Individual Behavior
Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) The conflict individuals experience among their own attitudes caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously. The affective and cognitive components of the individual’s attitude are in conflict with intended behavior. The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a fundamental cognitive drive to reduce this dissonance by modifying an existing belief, or rejecting one of the contradictory ideas.

19 Work-Related Attitudes
Job Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction An attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his or her work. Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors Job satisfaction is influenced by personal, group, and organizational factors. Satisfied employees are absent less often, make positive contributions, and stay with the organization. Dissatisfied employees are absent more often, may experience stress which disrupts coworkers, and may be continually looking for another job. High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance.

20 Work-Related Attitudes
Organizational Commitment - An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization. Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviors Employee commitment strengthens with an individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of job security, and participation in decision making. Committed employees have highly reliable habits, plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster more effort in performance.

21 Affect and Mood in Organizations
Positive Affectivity A tendency to be relatively upbeat and optimistic, have an overall sense of well-being, see things in a positive light, and seem to be in a good mood. Negative Affectivity A tendency to be generally downbeat and pessimistic, tend to see things in a negative way, and seem to be in a bad mood.

22 Perception and Individual Behavior
The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information. Selective Perception The process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. If selective perception causes someone to ignore important information it can become quite detrimental.

23 Perceptual Processes

24 Perception and Individual Behavior
Stereotyping The process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute (gender, race, profession, school, e.g.). Stereotyping may cost the organization valuable talent, violate federal anti-bias laws, and is likely unethical.

25 Perception and Attribution
A mechanism through which we observe behavior and attribute a cause to it. Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed: Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness

26 Stress and Individual Behavior
A person’s response to a strong stimulus (i.e., a stressor). General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) The general cycle of the stress process. Stage 1 Alarm Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion

27 The General Adaptation Syndrome

28 Causes of Work Stress

29 Causes and Consequences of Stress
Negative personal consequences Behavioral Psychological Medical Negative work-related consequences Poor quality work output and lower productivity. Job dissatisfaction, low morale, and a lack of commitment. Withdrawal through indifference and absenteeism. Burnout A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.

30 Stress and Individual Behavior (Type A Personality)
Personality Types Type A personality Extremely competitive (aggressive), devoted to work, have a strong sense of time urgency (impatient). Have a lot of drive and want to accomplish as much as possible as quickly as possible. Prone to stress.

31 Stress and Individual Behavior (Type B Personality)
Personality Types Type B Personality Less competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker sense of time urgency. Less likely to experience personal stress or to come into conflict with other people. More likely to have a balanced, relaxed approach to life.

32 Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies for Individuals
Regular exercise reduces tension and stress, and improves self-confidence and feelings of optimism. Relaxation allows individuals to adapt and better deal with their stress. Time management reduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish them in their order of importance. Support groups socializing away from work reduces stress.

33 Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies for Organizations
Organizations are partly responsible for stress. Organizations also bear the costs of stress-related claims. Organizational wellness/stress management programs can be used to promote healthful employee activities and derive the benefits of increased organizational productivity.

34 Creativity in Organizations
The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas. The Creative Individual Background experiences and creativity Many creative individuals were reared in creative environments. Personal traits and creativity Creative persons have personal traits of openness, an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy, independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence, and a strong belief in their own creativity.

35 Creativity in Organizations
The Creative Individual Cognitive abilities and creativity Most creative people are highly intelligent. They are both divergent and convergent thinkers, a skill they use to see differences and similarities in situations, phenomena, and events.

36 The Creative Process Preparation Incubation
Formal education and training is used to “get up to speed.” Experiences on the job provide additional knowledge and ideas. Incubation A period of less intense conscious concentration during which knowledge and ideas acquired, during reparation, mature and develop. Incubation can be helped by pauses in rational thought.

37 The Creative Process Insight Verification
A spontaneous breakthrough in which the creative person achieves a new understanding of some problem or situation. Patterns of thought coalesce into a new understanding. Verification Determines the validity or truthfulness of the insight. Tests are conducted and prototypes are built to see if the insight leads to the expected results.

38 The Creative Process Enhancing Creativity in Organizations
Make creativity part of the organization’s culture. Set goals for revenues from creative products and services. Reward creativity; refrain from punishing creative failures. Some ideas work out as expected, others don’t work out as intended.

39 Types of Workplace Behavior
A pattern of action by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences organizational effectiveness. Performance Behaviors The total set of work-related behaviors an organization expects an individual to display.

40 Types of Workplace Behavior
Withdrawal Behaviors Absenteeism occurs when an individual does not show up for work when expected for legitimate or feigned reasons. Absenteeism may be a symptom of other work-related problems. Turnover occurs when individuals quit their jobs for work-related or personal reasons.

41 Types of Workplace Behavior
Organizational Citizenship The behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organization. The determinants of organizational citizenship is a complex mosaic of individual, social, and organizational variables. The personality, attitudes, and needs of the individual. The social context, or work group, in which the individual works. An organization (and its culture) capable of rewarding citizenship behaviors.

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