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Presentation on theme: "Emotion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emotion

2 Theories of Emotions Physiological activation - Physical response
Emotion are a mix of: Physiological activation - Physical response Expressive behaviors - Behavior Conscious experience – Thinking and Feelings

3 James-Lange Theory of Emotion.
The Stimulus William James and Carl Lange completely opposed to common-sense view. Proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. The body changes ultimately cause to feel emotions Physical Reaction Emotion

4 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
How can that theory be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. The physiological change (body’s arousal) and cognitive awareness (emotions) must occur separately (but simultaneously). Routed to the cortex and the Sympathetic NS at the same time by the Thalamus.

5 Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer explains emotions more completely that the other two theories. They happen at the same time but… To experience the emotion the person must be physically aroused AND cognitively label the arousal. Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.


7 Two Routes to Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological
Lazarus/Schachter Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological activation Expressive behavior Subjective experience Zajonc/LeDoux

8 Lie Detectors Called a polygraph.
Measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion: Perspiration Heart rate Blood pressure Breathing changes

9 Lie Detectors 50 Innocents 50 Thieves
--1/3 of innocent declared guilty --1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984) Percentage Innocent people Guilty 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph

10 Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good? What about 95% accuracy?
*Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty. --test all employees --285 will be wrongly accused What about 95% accuracy? *Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty. --test all employees (including 999 innocents) --50 wrongly declared guilty --1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)

11 Expressing Emotion

12 Neuroscience of Emotions

13 Know how emotions affect the ANS

14 Arousal and Performance
Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks. For MOST tasks though, you want moderate levels of arousal. Performance level Difficult tasks Easy tasks Low Arousal High

15 Role of Neurotransmitters & Hormones
Important Roles in Emotion: Low serotonin  Depression. High levels of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine  Anger and Fear.

16 The Limbic System and Emotions
The Amygdala is a neural key to fear learning. Also involved in rage and aggression. Integrates the hormonal and neural emotional aspects.

17 Role of the Cortex and Emotions
In general… the right hemisphere specializes in negative emotions and… the left hemisphere specializes in positive emotions.

18 Expressed Emotion People more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one.

19 Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Number of expressions
Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Number of expressions

20 Expressing Emotion Non-verbal communication - gestures, body language, facial expressions. Introverts – better at reading other’s emotions. Extroverts – easier to read.

21 Culture and Emotional Expression
Gestures and their meaning vary from culture to culture. Individualist cultures show more intense and prolonged emotions.

22 Detecting and Computing Emotion
Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time. OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the research on reading and misreading facial and behavioral indicators of emotion. Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?

23 Culture and Emotional Expression
When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them. OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the culture-specific and culturally universal aspects of emotional expression, and explain how emotional expressions can enhance survival.

24 Experienced Emotion Infants’ naturally occurring emotions
Joy B) Anger C) Interest D) Disgust E) Surprise F) Sadness G) Fear A. Joy B. Anger C. Interest D. Disgust E. Surprise F. Sadness G. Fear

25 Two Dimensions of Emotion
Positive valence Negative High arousal Low pleasant relaxation joy sadness fear anger Blue = Psychological Pink = Physiological

26 Anger Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato B.C.).

27 Anger People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable. People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains. If you’re angry at someone about something… tell them directly.

28 Anger - Cultural & Gender Differences
Boys tend to respond to anger by moving away from that situation or exercising, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music. Anger also breeds prejudice (Like the 9/11 attacks did). Individualized cultures encourage venting; not collectivist cultures.

29 Fear Fear can be learned through conditioning…
as well as through observation.

30 Don’t forget the Amygdala!
The neural key to fear learning. Like a guard dog, it is continuously alert for threats.

31 Happiness People who are happy… perceive the world as being safer.
make decisions easily. are more cooperative. live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.

32 Predictors of Happiness
Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to… Have high self-esteem Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

33 Experiencing Emotion Catharsis: Emotional release.
Catharsis hypothesis: “Releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

34 Experiencing Emotion Feel-good, do-good phenomenon:
People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

35 Experiencing Emotion Subjective Well-Being:
Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.

36 Experienced Emotion Moods across the day

37 Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person
Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 Percentage very happy Personal income

38 Values & Life Satisfaction
Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.

39 Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
Tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level. If you get a raise in salary, you feel good. But once you adjust to that new salary level, you need another raise to get that same feeling again. Success and failure are always relative to our recent experiences.

40 Experiencing Emotion Relative Deprivation:
Perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.

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