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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:


2 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 13 Emotion James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

3 Emotion zEmotion ya response of the whole organism xphysiological arousal xexpressive behaviors xconscious experience

4 Emotional Arousal Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract Decreases SALVATION Increases Perspires SKIN Dries Increases RESPERATION Decreases Accelerates HEART Slows Inhibits DIGESTION Activates Secrete stress hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of stress hormones

5 Arousal and Performance zPerformance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Performance level LowArousalHigh Difficult tasksEasy tasks

6 Emotion- Lie Detectors zPolygraph ymachine commonly used in attempts to detect lies ymeasures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion xperspiration xheart rate xblood pressure xbreathing changes

7 Emotion- Lie Detectors zControl Question yUp to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? zRelevant Question yDid the deceased threaten to harm you in any way? zRelevant > Control --> Lie

8 Emotion- Lie Detectors Control question Relevant question Control question Relevant question (a)(b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate

9 Emotion- Lie Detectors z50 Innocents z50 Thieves y1/3 of innocent declared guilty y1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984) Percentage Innocent people Guilty people 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph

10 Emotion- Lie Detectors zIs 70% accuracy good? yAssume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty xtest all employees x285 will be wrongly accused zWhat about 95% accuracy? yAssume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty xtest all employees (including 999 innocents) x50 wrongly declared guilty x1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)

11 Expressing Emotion Smiles can show different emotions: A) Mask anger B) Overly polite C) Soften criticism D) Reluctant compliance

12 Expressing Emotion zCulturally universal expressions

13 Experiencing Emotion zThe Amygdala-a neural key to fear learning Amygdala

14 Experiencing Emotion zCatharsis yemotional release ycatharsis hypothesis x“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges zFeel-good, do-good phenomenon ypeople’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

15 Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion Strong Neutral Strong First experience (a) Strong Neutral Strong After repeated experiences (b)

16 Experiencing Emotion zSubjective Well-Being yself-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life yused along with measures of objective well-being xphysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life

17 Experiencing Emotion zAre today’s collegians materialistic? Percentage rating goal as very important or essential 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1966 ‘68 ‘70 ‘72 ‘74 ‘76 ‘78 ‘80 ‘82 ‘84 ‘86 ‘88 ‘90 ‘92 ‘94 ‘96 Year Developing a meaningful life philosophy Being very well-off financially

18 Experiencing Emotion zDoes money buy happiness? Year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy $20,000 $19,000 $18,000 $17,000 $16,000 $15,000 $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percentage very happy Personal income

19 Experiencing Emotion zAdaptation-Level Phenomenon ytendency to form judgements relative to a “neutral” level xbrightness of lights xvolume of sound xlevel of income ydefined by our prior experience zRelative Deprivation yperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

20 Theories of Emotion zDoes your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?

21 James-Lange Theory of Emotion zExperience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli James-Lange Theory Fear (emotion) Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

22 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion zEmotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: yphysiological responses ysubjective experience of emotion Cannon-Bard Theory Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion)

23 Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion zTo experience emotion one must: ybe physically aroused ycognitively label the arousal Schachter’s Theory Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion= labeled arousal) Cognitive label “I’m afraid” Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)

24 Cognition and Emotion zThe brain’s shortcut for emotions Thalamus Visual cortex To pounding heart Amygdala Instant fear response Slightly slower interpretation: “This is a snake! Get away.”

25 Cognition and Emotion zEmotion and cognition feed on each other Experienced emotion Cognition

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