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Emotions, Stress, and Health

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1 Emotions, Stress, and Health
Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 11 Emotions, Stress, and Health

2 Emotion a response of the whole organism involves...
physiological arousal expressive behaviors (Actions) conscious experience

3 Theories of Emotion Appraisal Event Emotional response Physiological
activation Expressive behavior Subjective experience

4 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal
Emotional Arousal Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Dries Slows Activates secretion of stress EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS

5 Arousal and Performance
Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Performance level Low Arousal High Difficult tasks Easy tasks

6 Lie Detectors Polygraph
measures several arousal responses that accompany emotion perspiration heart rate blood pressure breathing changes

7 Emotion- Lie Detectors
Control question Relevant (a) (b) Respiration Perspiration Heart rate

8 Emotion- Lie Detectors
Percentage Innocent people Guilty 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph 50 Innocents 50 Thieves 1/3 of innocent declared guilty 1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)

9 Lie Detection? In a group answer the following…
Is there a place for the use of polygraph devices? Benefits? Drawbacks? What might be a better option? Choose one person to record brief notes for the group and one person to report a summary of the discussion

10 Expressing Emotion Gender and expressiveness Number of expressions
Men Women Sad Happy Scary Film Type 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Number of expressions

11 Expressing Emotion (a) (b) (c) (d) Smiles can show different emotions: a) Mask anger b) Overly polite c) Soften criticism d) Reluctant compliance

12 Expressing Emotion Culturally universal expressions

13 Expressing Emotion Activation of “sad face” muscles makes subject feel sadder (from Larsen, et al., 1992).

14 Spotting a fake/real smile…

15 Experiencing Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis
catharsis hypothesis: ”releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

16 Subjective Well-Being
Experiencing Emotion Subjective Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life How happy are you? (handout)

17 Figure The changing materialism of entering college students Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition Copyright © 2008 by Worth Publishers

18 Figure 11. 16 Does money buy happiness
Figure Does money buy happiness? Myers: Exploring Psychology, Seventh Edition Copyright © 2008 by Worth Publishers

19 Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction Importance scores
Money Love Life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 Importance scores

20 Experiencing Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Relative Deprivation
tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

21 Experiencing Emotion However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness

22 How do we find happiness?
The Path to Happiness (worksheet) Improving mood and life satisfaction Set goals with daily aims Act happy Exercise Sleep Nurture close relationships Help those in need Gratitude journal

23 What is Stress? Stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors The rate of wear & tear on the body

24 What is Stress? Appraisal Response Stressful event (tough math test)
Threat (“Yikes! This is beyond me!”) Challenge (“I’ve got to apply all I know”) Panic, freeze up Aroused, focused Appraisal Response

25 What is Stress? General Adaptation Syndrome
resistance Phase 1 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources) Phase 2 Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3 Exhaustion (reserves depleted) The body’s resistance to stress can last only so long before exhaustion sets in Stressor occurs General Adaptation Syndrome Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages

26 What is Stress? Coronary Heart Disease
leading cause of death in the U.S.

27 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease
Hopelessness scores 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Heart attack Death Low risk Moderate risk High risk Men who feel extreme hopelessness are at greater risk for heart attacks and early death

28 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease
Type A competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people Type B easygoing, relaxed people Criticism serious limitations of original study overly simplistic some feel it is obsolete

29 Life-style modification patients
Promoting Health Modifying Type A life-style can reduce recurrence of heart attacks Percentage of patients with recurrent heart attacks (cumulative average) 6 5 4 3 2 1 Year Life-style modification patients Control patients Modifying life-style reduced recurrent

30 Stress and Disease Psychosomatic Illness “mind-body” illness
any stress-related physical illness distinct from hypochondriasis

31 Promoting Health Aerobic Exercise
Depression score 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Before treatment evaluation After treatment No-treatment group Aerobic exercise Relaxation treatment Aerobic Exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness may also alleviate depression and anxiety

32 Level of social support
Life events Tendency toward Health Illness Personal appraisal Challenge Threat Personality type Easygoing Nondepressed Optimistic Hostile Depressed Pessimistic Personality habits Nonsmoking Regular exercise Good nutrition Smoking Sedentary Poor nutrition Level of social support Close, enduring Lacking

33 Promoting Health The religion factor is mulitidimensional Religious
involvement Healthy behaviors (less smoking, drinking) Social support (faith communities, marriage) Positive emotions (less stress, anxiety) Better health (less immune system suppression, stress hormones, and suicide)

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