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Project Management: A Managerial Approach

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1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach
Chapter 8 Scheduling

2 Overview WBS to Schedule Process PERT Schedule Types CPM

3 Scheduling A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activity Taken together with the plan and budget, it is probably the major tool for the management of projects

4 Scheduling In a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing operation Projects lack the continuity of day-to-day operations and often present much more complex problems of coordination Chapter 8-2

5 Scheduling The basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationships This network should graphically portray the sequential relations between the tasks in a project Tasks that must precede or follow other tasks are then clearly identified in time as well as function Chapter 8-3

6 Types of Scheduling Operation Scheduling: a type of scheduling that assigns jobs to machines or workers to job. Operation schedule is crucial because many performance measures such as on-time delivery, inventory levels, the manufacturing cycle time, cost and quality, relate directly to the scheduling of each production lot. Workforce Scheduling: a type of scheduling that determine when employee work. Workforce scheduling is equally crucial because measures of performance such as customer waiting time, waiting-line length, utilization, cost, and quality related to the availability of the servers Chapter 8-2

7 Techniques of Scheduling
Gantt Chart Network Techniques: PERT & CPM Both of the techniques is called diagramed technique of scheduling which possesses the following benefits: It is a consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the project It illustrates the interdependence of all tasks, work packages, and work elements Chapter 8-2

8 Scheduling Network benefits (cont.): It aids in ensuring that the proper communications take place between departments and functions It determines an expected project completion date It identifies so-called critical activities that, if delayed, will delay the project completion time It identifies activities with slack that can be delayed for specific periods without penalty Chapter 8-5

9 Scheduling Network benefits (cont.):
It determines the dates on which tasks may be started or must be started if the project is to stay on schedule It illustrates which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource timing conflicts It illustrates which tasks may run, or must be run, in parallel to achieve the predetermined project completion date It relieves some interpersonal conflict by clearly showing task dependencies Chapter 8-6

10 Gantt chart Advantages Limitations
Gantt charts are quite commonly used. They provide an easy graphical representation of when activities (might) take place. Simple& quickest method. Limitations Do not clearly indicate details regarding the progress of activities Do not give a clear indication of interrelation ship between the separate activities

11 Simple Schedule – Gantt Chart

12 Network Techniques: PERT and CPM
With the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is the use of network techniques such as PERT and CPM The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958 The Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time period Chapter 8-7

13 Network Techniques: PERT and CPM
PERT has been primarily used for research and development projects CPM was designed for construction projects and has been generally embraced by the construction industry The two methods are quite similar and are often combined for educational presentation Chapter 8-8

14 Scheduling Terminology
Activity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete Event - The result of completing one or more activities. An identifiable end state occurring at a particular time. Events use no resources. Network - The combination of all activities and events define the project and the activity precedence relationships

15 Scheduling Terminology
Path - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a network Critical - Activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. A project’s critical path is understood to mean that sequence of critical activities that connect the project’s start event to its finish event Chapter 8-10

16 Scheduling Terminology
An activity can be in any of these conditions: It may have a successor(s) but no predecessor(s) - starts a network It may have a predecessor(s) but no successor(s) - ends a network It may have both predecessor(s) and successor(s) - in the middle of a network

17 Steps in CPM Scheduling
1. Specify the individual activities. 2. Determine the sequence of those activities. 3. Draw a network diagram. 4. Estimate the completion time for each activity. 5. Identify the critical path (longest path through the network) 6. Update the CPM diagram as the project progresses.

18 Drawing Networks Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for events Activity-on-Node (AON) networks use nodes to represent activities with arrows to show precedence relationships The choice between AOA and AON representation is largely a matter of personal preference Chapter 8-12

19 The Project Network Use of nodes and arrows
Arrows  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. Nodes  A node is represented by a circle - Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish.

20 Activity on Node & Activity on Arrow
- An arrow represents a task, while a node is the completion of a task - Arrows represent order of events Activity on Node - A completion of an activity is represented by a node

21 Requirements: 1. Draw a network diagram 2. Find out the critical Path.
Activity Code Activity Duration in days Depends on A Prepare Technical Specifications 10 ----- B Tender Processing 25 C Release of work order 3 D Supply of Boiler equipment 60 E Supply of Auxiliaries 20 F Supply of pipes & pipe fittings G Civil Work 15 H Installation of Auxiliary equipment & piping 5 E,F&G I Installation of Boiler D&H J Testing and commissioning 2 Requirements: 1. Draw a network diagram 2. Find out the critical Path.

22 Hypothetical Network G B H I A D Start C E F J End 10 25 3 60 20 15 5

23 End of the Lesson

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