2 IntroductionInventory management is a core operations management activity. Good inventory management is important for the successful operation of most businesses and their supply chains. Operations marketing, and finance have interests in good inventory management.
3 InventoryA stock or store of goods. Firms typically stock hundreds or even thousands of items in inventory, ranging from small things such as pencils, paper clips, screws, nuts, and bolts to large items such as machines, trucks, construction equipment, and airplanes,
4 Independent vs. Dependent Demand Inventory Independent-demand items - Items that are ready to be sold or used. Example: computers Dependent-demand items- these are components of finished products, rather than the finished products themselves. Example: Computer components
5 Nature and Importance of Inventories Inventories are a vital part of business. Not only are necessary for operations, but they also contribute to customer satisfaction. Inventory decisions in service organizations can be especially critical. Hospitals, for example, carry an array of drugs and blood supplies that might be needed on short notice.
6 Different kinds of inventories Raw materials and purchased partsPartially completed goods, called work-in- process (WIP) Example: Body parts of cars.Finished-goods inventories (manufacturing firms) or merchandise (retail stores)Tools and suppliesMaintenance and repairs (MRO) inventoryGoods-in-transit to warehouses, distributors, or customers (pipeline inventory)
7 Functions of Inventory To meet anticipated customer demand.To smooth production requirements.To decouple operations.To protect against stockouts. (safety stocks)To take advantage of order cycles. (to minimize purchasing and inventory costs)To hedge against price increases.To permit operations.To take advantage of quantity discounts.
8 Two Main Concerns of Inventory Management Level of customer service, that is, to have the right goods, in sufficient quantities, in the right place, at the right time.Cost of ordering and carrying inventories.
9 Objectives of inventory control To achieve satisfactory levels of customer service while keeping inventory costs within reasonable bounds.Measures of performance managers can use to judge the effectiveness of inventory management:Customer satisfactionInventory turnover ( ratio of annual cost of goods sold to average inventory investment)
10 Requirements for effective inventory management A system to keep track of the inventory on hand and on order.A reliable forecast of demand that includes an indication of possible forecast error.Knowledge of lead time variability.Reasonable estimates of inventory holding costs, and shortage costs.A classification system for inventory items.
11 Inventory Counting Systems Periodic Inventory System – a physical count of items in inventory is made at periodic intervals (e.g. Weekly, monthly) in order to decide how much to order of each item.Perpetual Inventory System – (also known as a continual system) keeps track if removals from inventory on a continuous basis, so the system cam provide information on the current level of inventory for each item.
12 Perpetual Inventory systems This system can range from very simple to very sophisticated.A two-bin system, a very elementary system, which uses two containers for inventory.Batch or onlineBatch systems, inventory records are collected periodically and entered into the system.Online systems, the transactions are recorded immediately.
13 Periodic Inventory Systems Supermarkets, discount stores, and department stores have always been major users of periodic counting systems.Universal product code (UPC) or bar code – bar code printed on a label that has information about the item to which is attached.RFID (Radio frequency identification tags) are also used to keep track of inventory in certain applications
15 Holding CostsHolding, or carrying cost – Cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time, usually a year.Costs include interest, insurance, taxes, depreciation, obsolescence, deterioration, spoilage, pilferage, breakage, and warehousing costs (heat, light, rent, security), opportunity costs.
16 Ordering CostsOrdering costs – Costs of ordering and receiving inventory. They are the costs that vary with the actual placement of an order. Besides shipping costs, they include determining how much is needed, preparing invoices, inspecting goods upon arrival for quality and quantity, and moving the goods to temporary storage.
17 Shortage costsShortage costs – Costs resulting when demand exceeds the supply of inventory; often unrealized profit per unit.These costs can include the opportunity cost of not making a sale, loss of customer goodwill, late charges, and similar costs. Furthermore, if the shortage occurs in an item carried for internal use (e.g., to supply an assembly line), the cost of lost production or downtime is considered shortage cost.
18 How much to order: Economic Order Quantity Models The basic economic order quantity modelThe economic production quantity modelThe quantity discount model
19 Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model This is the simplest of the three models. It is used to identify fixed order size that will minimize the sum of the annual costs of holding inventory and ordering inventory.
20 Assumptions of the basic EOQ model Only one product is involved.Annual demand requirements are known.Demand is spread evenly throughout the year so that the demand rate is reasonably constant.Lead time does not vary.Each order is received in a single deliveryThere are no quantity discounts.
21 Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) Assumptions of EPQ model:Only one item is involved.Annual demand is known.The usage rate is constant.Usage occurs continually, but production occurs periodically.The production rate is constant.Lead time does not vary.There are no quantity discounts.
22 Quantity DiscountsThese are price reductions for large orders offered to customers to induce them to buy in large quantities.
23 When to reorder with EOQ ordering There are four determinants of the reorder point quantity:The rate of demand (usually based on a forecast)The lead timeThe extent of demand and/or lead time variability.The degree of stockout risk acceptable to management.
24 Definition of termsReorder point – When the quantity on hand of an item drops to this amount, the item is reordered.Safety stock – stock that is held in excess of expected demand due to variable demand and/or lead time.Lead time – time interval between ordering and receiving the order.Point-of-sale (POS) systems- record items at time of sale.