Presentation on theme: "Nutrient Absorption left lung has two lobes instead of three (heart takes up space)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrient Absorptionleft lung has two lobes instead of three (heart takes up space)
2 What is Respiration?Cellular Respiration - the process by which cells get energy from the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygenTakes place in the mitochondriaExternal Respiration - The process of gas exchange between the lungs and the environment.Release carbon dioxideUptake of oxygen
3 glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy C6H12O O CO H2O + 36 ATPglucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy1. Where does the glucose come from? Food 2. Where does the oxygen come from? Breathing 3. What are the final products of cellular respiration? CO2, H2O, ATP 4. In which organelle does this take place in our cells? Mitochondria
4 Evolutionary Trends of the Respiratory System Simple Complex
5 Function -BreathingTo bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.Diaphragm – Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing.Inhaling (Breathing in)Diaphragm contracts (pushes down) and the rib cage rises up.Exhaling (Breathing out)Passive eventDiaphragm relaxes and the rib cage lowers.
6 The Respiratory System Includes: Nose (Nasal cavity)Pharynx (Throat)Larynx (Voice Box)Trachea- (Windpipe)GlottisEpiglottisBronchi-Rt.—Lft.Lungs-Rt.(3 lobes)—Lft.(2Lobes)BronchiolesAlveoli-lined w/cappillaries=diffusionDiaphragm
8 1. Nose Where air enters and exits the body Nose hairs – trap dust and unwanted particlesNasal chamber – warms and moistens air before it enters the respiratory system
9 2. Pharynx (throat)Air moves through the nose to a tube at the back of the mouth called the pharynx, or throat.Pharynx - Serves as a passageway for both air and food.
10 3. Larynx (Voice box) Located between the pharynx and top of trachea. Contains two highly elastic ligaments known as the vocal cords.When muscles pull the vocal cords together, the air moving between them causes the cords to vibrate and produce sounds.Your ability to speak, shout, and sing comes from these tissues.
11 4. Trachea (windpipe)Air moves from the pharynx into the trachea, to the lungs. Opening of trachea is called glottis.A flap of tissue called the epiglottis covers the entrance to the trachea (glottis) when you swallowThe glottis is covered by epiglottis and prevents choking.Lined with cartilage rings, ciliaCilia in the trachea.
12 5. BronchiFrom the larynx, air passes through the trachea into two large passageways in the chest cavity called bronchi.Each bronchus leads into one of the lungs.The large bronchus subdivides into smaller bronchi, which lead to even smaller passageways called bronchioles.Surrounded by smooth muscle enabling the nervous system to regulate the size of the air passageways.
13 AlveoliThe bronchioles continue to subdivide until they reach a series of dead ends—millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli.Grouped in little clusters, like bunches of grapes.A delicate network of thin- walled capillaries surrounds each alveolus.This is where gas exchange occurs because blood (capillaries) and air are side by side.O2 is put into the blood and C02 is removed from the blood
14 Gas Exchange Each healthy lung contains about 150 million alveoli ! Provides for an enormous surface area for gas exchange.OxygenDissolves in the moisture on the inner surface of the alveoli and then diffuses across the thin-walled capillaries into the blood.Carbon Dioxide in the BloodstreamDiffuses in the opposite direction, across the membrane of an alveolus and into the air within it.
15 How Breathing Is Controlled You have some voluntary control over breathing.The medulla oblongata in the brain also monitors carbon dioxide levels in the blood.It forces you to breathe even if you are trying to hold your breathe.As the CO2 levels rise, nerve impulses from the brain cause the diaphragm to contract, bringing air into the lungs.
16 Levels of Organization Respiratory SystemLevels of Organizationalveolimouth, nose, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, diaphragmrespiratorylung cell
17 Let’s Review:After food is broken down/digested, what system do the molecules diffuse to?CIRCULATORYAfter you take a breath, in to what system does the oxygen diffuse to?CIRCULATORY
18 Tobacco and the Respiratory System The upper respiratory tract can usually filter out dust and foreign particles that could damage the lungs.Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, and tar all of which paralyze the cilia. With no working cilia these particles stick to and enter the lungs.Smoking can cause chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer.
19 EmphysemaDestroys alveoli and the damage is irreversible
20 Compare healthy lung to unhealthy(tuberculosis)