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Respiratory System 2008-2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System 2008-2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System

2 DO NOW Brain Pop Video: Respiratory System

3 Requires respiratory surface for the exchange of gases (O2 & CO2)
The surface must be: Thin Moist In contact with O2 A transport system

4 Why do we need a respiratory system?
Need O2 in for cellular respiration make ATP Need CO2 out waste product food ATP O2 CO2

Composed of 2 lungs and the system of tubes that connects them to the outside * Lungs are in the chest cavity  diaphragm = muscle that separates lungs from abdomen

6 Lungs capillaries (circulatory system) trachea bronchi bronchioles
alveoli alveoli

7 Lungs Structure spongy texture alveoli moist lining covered by cilia
high surface area more absorption of O2 alveoli small air sacs moist lining mucus traps dust, pollen, particles covered by cilia hair-like extensions of cells move mucus upward to clear out lungs

8 Passage of Air: Nose (nostrils) Nasal cavity
Lined with ciliated cells capable of producing mucus - Hair catches dust particles - Air passing through the nasal cavity is moistened, warmed and filtered in the nasal cavity

9 Trachea (windpipe) – top part is the larynx with vocal cords
Pharynx (throat) - in the back of the oral cavity where the nasal cavity joins Trachea (windpipe) – top part is the larynx with vocal cords cartilage rings hold trachea open lined with ciliated tissues that sweep dust particles up and out so they may be swallowed or expelled

10 2 Bronchi – branch from the end of the trachea and lead to the 2 lungs
** also ringed with cartilage and lined with ciliated mucous membrane Bronchioles – highly branches tubules that subdivide from the ends of the bronchi and become progressively smaller as the pass deeper into the lungs no cartilage rings

11 Alveoli – air sacs where gas exchange occurs
surrounded by capillaries carry away oxygen absorbed in the moist lining so it can be transported to body tissues

12 Do Now Page 5 of the Respiration Packet

13 Breathing: Muscles and ribs + diaphragm = inhalation and exhalation to fill and empty lungs – 2x per minute Inhale: Ribs up and out Diaphragm flattens Volume increases Pressure decreases Exhale: Ribs down and in Diaphragm arches Volume decreases Pressure increases

14 Moving gases into bloodstream
Inhale O2 passes from alveoli to blood by diffusion Exhale CO2 passes from blood to alveoli capillaries (circulatory system)


16 Gas exchange: Diffusion of gases
Gases move by diffusion from high to low concentration capillaries are thin-walled tubes of circulatory system alveoli are thin-walled sacs of respiratory system capillaries in lungs capillaries in muscle O2 O2 O2 O2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 blood lungs blood body

17 Negative pressure breathing
Diaphragm moves down & expands chest cavity pulls air into lungs inhale exhale

18 Automatic Brain Control
You don’t have to think to breathe! Primitive parts of brain coordinate breathing medulla & pons measure blood pH CO2 = pH (acid) coordinate breathing, heart rate & body’s need for energy

19 Breathing and Homeostasis
ATP Homeostasis keeping the internal environment of the body balanced need to balance O2 in and CO2 out need to balance energy (ATP) production Exercise breathe faster need more ATP bring in more O2 & remove more CO2 Disease poor lung or heart function = breathe faster need to work harder to bring in O2 & remove CO2 CO2 O2

20 Disorders of the Respiratory System
Emphysema Asthma Cancer

21 Effects of Smoking Constricts or narrows the blood vessels
Causes blood pressure to rise and make the heart work harder Circulation deceases Smoking is the major cause of heart disease Can cause chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi) Reduces life expectancy

22 Smoking Can cause emphysema
Nicotine is addictive and a powerful drug which makes it difficult to quit smoking May worsen previous conditions such as asthma Can lead to cancers of the mouth, throat, and lungs

23 Gills: getting O2 out of water
Gills are gas exchange membranes outside of the body thin tissue high surface area must stay wet lots of blood vessels gas exchange O2 into blood CO2 out to water water gills Just keep swimming…

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