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CLASSICAL CHINA Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties and Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism in Chinese Society.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL CHINA Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties and Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism in Chinese Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLASSICAL CHINA Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties and Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism in Chinese Society

2 Zhou Dynasty (Joh) Longest dynasty in Chinese history
Leader claimed he ruled under the Mandate of Heaven Patriarchal society Filial piety was important Traded silk The ruler of the Zhou revolted against the Chang because their leader was a bad person Lasted for 800 years Mandate of Heaven Heaven kept order through the king The king was the link between heaven and earth If the king wasn’t a good ruler, he could be overthrown or replaced The gods would show their displeasure with a ruler through natural disasters, like floods Towns were under the control of local lords Families worked together on the land Children had to provide labor in the fields Filial piety It was the duty of all family members to make their needs and desires subordinate to those of the male head of the family This was a system where every family member had a place Used irrigation and iron plows Food production and population increased

3 Zhou Dynasty (continued)
Traded with India and Mesopotamia but developed mostly in isolation Contributions: Rode horses Developed very organized state Pottery and bronze Iron Use of ideographic symbols

4 Zhou Dynasty (continued)
Complex language and writing system 1,000 characters Developed three major philosophies to explain the nature of humans and the universe Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism To be barely literate, you had to know 1,000 characters Characters represented ideas, not sounds

5 CONFUCIANISM Contemporary of Buddha
Upset by the violence and moral decay of his era His teachings were recorded in the Analects He was appointed as the Minister of Crime VIOLENCE Constant warfare Men, women, and children were beheaded MINISTER OF CRIME As Minister of Crime, he was so kind that people were overwhelmed by his kindness and crime vanished from his province.

6 Confucianism (continued)
Teachings of Confucious Political and ethical, not spiritual Social order was important Leaders should set a good example Government service should be open to all men of superior talent Duty and humanity were central USELESS TO SPECULATE ON SPIRITUAL ISSUES It should be assumed that there was an order in the universe If humans acted in harmony with the universe, they would prosper CIVIL SERVICE Before this time government service was limited to nobles DUTY AND HUMANITY WERE CENTRAL Individuals had to subordinate themselves to the needs of the family and community Filial piety said that children should respect their parents and elders

7 DAOISM Based on ideas of Laozi Teachings
Daoist Temple DAOISM Based on ideas of Laozi Teachings Not concerned with the meaning of the universe Sets forth proper forms of human behavior Concerned with the natural order The way to follow the will of Heaven is not through action but inaction by not interfering with the natural order LOW DZUH IDEAS Contained within the Tao Te Ching Concerned with the natural order WAY TO FOLLOW THE WILL OF HEAVEN You are wise if you don’t argue Daoist Ritual for the Dead

8 LEGALISM Teachings Human beings were evil by nature
A strong ruler was needed to create an orderly society Only harsh laws and stiff punishments for bad behavior and rich rewards for good behavior would cause the common people to serve the interests of the ruler Rulers should control ideas, as well as actions Like Thomas Hobbes and Leviathan Stressed punishments more than rewards Rulers did not have to show compassion for their people Rulers should control ideas and actions

9 Fall of the Empire Fall of the empire Zhou rulers declined in quality
Several of the kingdom’s territories became powerful states that challenged the ruler Civil war broke out Infantry is foot soldiers Cavalry is soldiers on horseback CIVIL WAR Iron weapons came into use Infantry and cavalry, armed with the crossbow, made their appearance The Qin won the Civil War (against the Zhou)

10 QIN (CH’IN) DYNASTY Emerged after the civil war following the Zhou dynasty Qin Shihuangdi was a powerful leader and the First Emperor Created a single monetary system Built roads throughout the empire Aggressive in foreign affairs Destroyed outside rival armies and interior resistance Gave himself a title that had been used for gods CHIN SHUH HWAHNG DEE (Qin Shihuangdi) Came to power at 13 DESTROYED RESISTANCE All of the noble families in the empire had to move to the capital city Burned all books except those dealing with medicine and agriculture Dug a canal to supply his armies NAME Eventually came to be called emperor, which means “greater than a king”

Discovered by farmers digging a well in 1974 Re-creation of Qin’s imperial guard Meant to accompany the emperor on his journey to the next world Slightly bigger than life-size (commanders are tallest) Faces were molded individually and soldiers were dressed in uniforms 6,000 figures in the first pit alone (of three) There were also horses, wooden chariots, and 7,000 bronze weapons Sculptures, buildings, and cemeteries have been found in Qin’s burial tomb

12 The Great Wall Qin empire’s major threat was in the north
A number of walls were constructed to keep the nomads out during Zhou empire Qin decided to strengthen the existing walls, link them together, and create a Great Wall of China Required thousands of workers Approximately a million peasants were forced to cart materials with wheelbarrows and work on the wall According to legend, some of them are now buried within the wall 1,400 miles long Only fought off invaders temporarily

13 QIN (CH’IN) DYNASTY Political changes
Legalism was adopted as the regime’s ideology People who opposed the regime were punished or executed Created a highly centralized state HIGHLY CENTRALIZED STATE Included censors who checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their jobs Qin Crossbow

14 QIN (CH’IN) DYNASTY Fall of the Qin Dynasty Qin was the only ruler
Contributing factors Censorship Harsh taxes Forced labor projects Followed by a period of civil war QIN AS ONLY RULER His son was ruthless but less capable than Qin had been

15 HAN DYNASTY Seen as a period of glory, unity, and peace
Discarded the harsh policies of the Qin Renewal of learning Chose officials based on merit, rather than by birth Created a civil service exam Expanded the empire Silk Road linked China with Persia and other nations Peaceful Peasants suffered BASED ON Based policies on Confucianism instead of Legalism RENEWAL OF LEARNING All books were allowed again EXPANSION In the south and the west PEACEFUL Faced few threats from the barbarians PEASANTS SUFFERED Had to perform military service Forced into labor for up to one month every year Farm plots were made smaller Forced to sell their land and become tenant farmers Some were forced to sell their children into slavery

16 Contributions of the Han dynasty
Bronze mirror Contributions of the Han dynasty Iron casting technology, which led to invention of steel Paper Rudder Fore-and-aft rigging China gained exposure to Buddhism from travelers on the Silk Road Ship inventions made ships able to sail into the wind for the first time Bronze lamp that depicts a phoenix bird

17 Silk Road Han encouraged trade along with Silk Road with the west
Improved roads encouraged trade There was demand for silk in India, Mesopotamia, Islamic empire, and Mediterranean Most trade was carried out by nomads Provided initial framework for later global trading patterns Chinese rulers were at one end and Muslim sultans and Roman emperors were at the other end Leaders of all areas involved often had to send their armies to battle hostile nomads who were trying to take or disrupt the flow of trade Specialized merchants usually controlled the trade and were based in urban centers or in trading towns that developed along the trade route in Asia, Arabia, and North Africa Until they were replaced by the railroad and steamship during the Industrial Revolution, overland trade routes were the most important channels for contacts between civilizations Religions like Buddhism and Islam spread along the routes; so did paper and war technologies Sedentary peoples adopted the nomads’ reliance on heavy cavalry and hit-and-run tactics and use of bow and arrow, saddles, and bits Great Wall of China was built to keep invaders out (this also spurred development of gunpowder and cannons in China) Nomadic warriors spread diseases (Black Death)

18 China plunged into civil war
Bronze lamp Model of funeral tomb Fall of the empire Nobles filled the gap Leaders were corrupt Raids continued in the north Rebel armies sacked the Han capital China plunged into civil war The next dynasty didn’t come to power for 400 years WEAK RULERS Amused themselves with court life NOBLES Filled the gap by amassing large estates and forcing free farmers to become their tenants Lavish Robe

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