Purpose The report documents the research process. It contains:
Components Title Abstract Introduction Literature Review Methodology Results/Findings Discussions Bibliography/References
Title Major identification of the research Identifies the general area or topic of the research Should convey the tone of the research Include key words that describe the topic of your study
Abstract Summary of the research paper Consists of the: –Purpose of the study –Background –Rationale –Methodology –Findings –Conclusion Usually written last
Introduction The introduction has the following components: Background Rationale The purpose of the study Hypotheses Objectives/Research Subtopics Limitations/Scope * Moves from general to specific
Introduction Cont’d The background of the study This section lays the foundation. Sets the stage so that the problem can be better understood. Provides the conceptual framework – links study to previous research Should have enough detail to give a good idea of the circumstances surrounding the problem. In research articles the literature review is a part of this section.
Introduction Cont’d The Rationale for the study A convincing argument of the need for the research. Usually shows gaps in knowledge or novelty of research and possible benefits.
Introduction Cont’d The purpose of the study States what is to be accomplished. The problem to be solved. Identifies precisely what is to be undertaken in the study. It may be necessary to identify sub-parts of the research.
Introduction Cont’d The Objectives/Research Subtopics These are the sub-parts of the research.
Introduction Cont’d Limitations This may also be placed in the discussion. It identifies factors that restricted the research. Includes: Resources such as time, money, manpower, expertise
Literature Review This is a search of the literature related to the problem. Important in seeing what others have done so that learn from mistakes Guides methodology development.
Methodology Describes exactly what was done. Written in the past tense. Must be detailed enough so that it can be repeated.
Results/Findings Describes what was found. Also written in the past tense. Narrative used for qualitative research while statistics, tables and graphs are used to illustrate points in quantitative research.
Discussion Explain findings. State implications Relate findings to previous research.
Conclusions States further research required States whether hypotheses supported.
References List of sources of information cited in report.
Purpose of the Research Proposal Needed for Funding Approval of Research by Supervisors Therefore it must be: Convincing that it is worthwhile and feasible Sound Detailed
Components of the Research Proposal Introduction Literature Review (Past Tense) Methodology (Written in the Future Tense) Results (Present Tense) –Describe type of data expected Budget Timeline Copies of questionnaires etc.