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Chapter 10: Negotiating Intersections

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1 Chapter 10: Negotiating Intersections
OBJECTIVES: Searching Intersections Controlled Intersections Uncontrolled Intersections Determining Right of Way & Judging Gaps

2 Searching Intersections
Look for clues to identify an intersection: Street signs & street lights Roadway markings Crossing traffic Parked vehicles on cross streets Turning traffic Rows of fences & mailboxes Traffic stopping Power lines


4 Searching Intersections
Approaching an Intersection Determine if you have an open zone through intersection Check all zones to see if open Look for line-of-sight restrictions Search for changes that might close zones Increase zone checks if line-of-sight is restricted Once within 4-6 seconds of intersection, search pattern should widen left & right

5 Searching Intersections
Continue Moving Ahead Can continue if: Green light No signs or signals Right, front. & left zones open Locate open front zones to move ahead safely Continue searching all front zones for path-of-travel change or a line-of-sight restriction Point-of-no-return – point beyond which you can no longer stop safely without entering intersection Under normal conditions – two seconds from intersection You are not allowed to make lane changes within an intersection

6 Searching Intersections
Moving After a Stop After stop & front zone is clear, search at 90-degree angles to left & right before moving forward When turning, check path-of-travel last If stopped behind another vehicle, wait one second to move after it begins to move

7 Controlled Intersections
Controlled Intersections with Signs Controlled Intersection – traffic signals or signs determine the right of way Blocked View at Stop Sign Crossing Traffic Search at 45-degree angles, check rear zone Check path of travel, prepare to make legal stop, look for vehicles turning into your path Stop with front bumper even with curb, search at 90-degree angles When open front zone and 7 seconds clear gap left & right, proceed with the proper speed


9 Controlled Intersections
Joining Traffic – Right Turn Search front zones for pedestrians & traffic turning onto your street After stop, search 90-degrees left & right, evaluate target zone by checking all front zones When clear & gap of 7 seconds or more, begin turn toward target area and accelerate Turn your head toward target path as you accelerate Joining Traffic – Left Turn Turn so that you end up in lane position 2 & adjust speed

10 Controlled Intersections
Controlled Intersections with Signals Red – Yellow – Green lights Search seconds ahead as you approach Check front zones before you reach point-of-no-return If you predict light will be red or traffic has closed your front zone Check rear zone Reduce speed Be prepared to stop


12 Controlled Intersections
Signals Stale Green Light – a light that has been green for a long time Fresh Green Light – light that has just turned green Does not guarantee safe path Check for open zones – someone may run a red light Yellow Light Must decide whether to stop or proceed Check rear zone to stop if possible, if not, proceed through intersection Red Light Check rear zone & reduce speed You must stop Stop where you can see the rear wheels touching the ground of the vehicle in front of you

13 Controlled Intersections
Unprotected Left Turns Unprotected Left Turn – made at a signal-controlled intersection that does not have a special left-turn light When you turn left, you must yield to oncoming traffic Protected Left Turns Protected Left Turn – when a special left-turn light, green arrow, or delayed green light lets you turn left while oncoming traffic is stopped Left-Turn Light – some are located over turn lane without using signs Green Arrow – can appear with normal three-colored lights, can be followed by a yellow arrow Delayed Green Light – indicates that one side has a green light while the other side is red


15 Controlled Intersections
Turns on Red Right on Red Come to full stop Position so you can see clearly Search front zones Yield right of way to any vehicle or pedestrian in, or entering, intersection Complete turn in nearest right lane Left on Red If from a one way street onto another one way street Follow same procedure as Right on Red Turn to nearest left lane

16 Controlled Intersections
Controlled Railroad Crossings Usually has lights along crossing gates Make a complete stop when: Lights are flashing Gate is down Remain stopped until: Lights stop flashing Gate is raised It is illegal, costly, & unsafe to drive around gates

17 Uncontrolled Intersections
Uncontrolled Intersection – has no signs or signals to regulate traffic Approaching Uncontrolled Intersections Identify intersection& check rear zones Determine open path of travel through intersection by checking all front zones Look for line-of-sight restrictions Look for changing zones as you approach If closed, check rear zone, let off accelerator, & cover or apply brake Driver on left must yield to driver on right Never assume other driver will yield Treat as you would a yield sign At a traffic circle, yield to those already in the circle coming fro your left Yield to pedestrians even if they are breaking the law


19 Uncontrolled Intersections
Procedures at Uncontrolled Intersections IPDE Process at Seconds from Intersection Check road conditions & closed front zones Identify if intersection is controlled Identify if other users are near intersection Search sides at 45-degrees & solve problems before entering the area Locate point-of-no-return Check rear zones for following traffic & slow vehicle IPDE Process at 4-6 Seconds from Intersection Recheck immediate path of travel Search left & right front for open zones If vehicle is approaching, prepare to stop Recheck rear zone IPDE Process at 2 Seconds from Intersection Continue evaluating zones for potential conflicts If front zone closes, brake to a stop Search left & right again Proceed when clear

20 Uncontrolled Intersections
Uncontrolled Railroad Crossings Uncontrolled Railroad Crossings –no flashing red lights or crossing gates Nearly all are marked with a sign Round, yellow railroad crossing signs are posted 250 feet from actual crossing in towns & cities Crossbuck – white, X-shaped sign is located at crossing Large white “X” painted on roadway Treat as yield sign


22 Uncontrolled Intersections
Crossing Railroad Tracks Slow down & check tracks in both directions Turn off all interior noise & listen for train sounds Reduce speed to handle rough crossing & notice number of track sets If train is coming, stop at a safe distance After train clears, check tracks again for another train on separate tracks If safe, cross & increase speed to at least 20 mph If stickshift, stay in lower gear while crossing – never shift while crossing Make sure any vehicles ahead clear tracks before you start across Be prepared to stop behind buses or truck carrying flammable materials

23 Determining Right of Way & Judging Gaps
What is Right of Way? Right of Way – describes the privilege of having immediate use of a certain part of the roadway You have right of way only when other drivers give it to you – not something you take Yield – letting others go first “yielding the right of way” is letting others go first to prevent a collision Can be given as a courtesy Usually laws determine who should have the right of way

24 Determining Right of Way & Judging Gaps
Situations When You Must Yield Your action should not cause those to whom you should yield the right of way to slow, stop, or change intended path of travel Traffic signs & signals only show who should yield right of way; they do not stop traffic for you Others can give you the right of way; do not assume others will always yield to you Many times it is better to yield right of way even when the law requires the other driver to yield Failure to yield right if way is on of the most frequent violations in fatal collisions

25 Determining Right of Way & Judging Gaps
Judging the Size of a Gap Must be able to judge size of gap between vehicles & how long it takes to pass through or enter intersecting traffic lanes Gap – distance between vehicles Different maneuvers call for different size gaps Speed also determines size of gap needed

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