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Shake, Rattle, and Roll the Earth

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Presentation on theme: "Shake, Rattle, and Roll the Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Shake, Rattle, and Roll the Earth
Plate Tectonics, Volcanoes, and Earthquakes

2 A Review of the Earth’s Interior
1. Crust Solid material upper portion of lithosphere 2. Asthenosphere plastic in nature (partly solid, partly liquid, allows it to flow) lower portion of lithosphere can flow very slowly with changes in heat 3. Mantle layer below asthenosphere more solid material Outer core liquid iron and nickel layer less dense than inner core allows certain seismic (earthquake) waves to pass through 5. Inner core solid iron and nickel layer more dense than outer core blocks seismic (earthquake) waves

3 A quick review of p. 10 What is the density of the outer core? At what temp is the Earth at a depth of 3000 km? What is the pressure at the top of the inner core?

4 The Untold Tragedies of Continental Drift

5 Theory of Continental Drift
1912 – Alfred Wegener proposes the theory but has no way to explain how the continents move what was his evidence that they did?

6 Wegener’s Evidence South America and Africa “fit” together
Pangea – the original supercontinent movement of plates separated to create the positions of present day continents one reason why champosaurs could exist in Canada! See ESRT page 8-9 Similar fossils found in Africa and South America how could that happen? Similar rock formations Granite formations in Europe similar to those in US


8 Plate Tectonics Proves Wegener Right!
By the 1960’s - Wegener’s theory finally accepted - mechanism for crustal plate movement found Theory of Plate Tectonics a theory that describes the crust as being composed of interlocking plates these plates move above the asthenosphere they can : move toward each other (converging boundaries) move away from each other (divergent boundaries) move past each other (transform boundaries) Plate tectonics studies the formation and movement of these plates

9 Proof of Plate Tectonics
Earthquakes and Volcanoes – occur where plates collide or separate – not random in where they occur Magnetism - Earth’s N-S poles periodically “switch” - some igneous rock contains iron - a record of these switches occur in the rock - surrounding the Mid-ocean ridges (places where new crust is formed) Heatflow measurements - measurement are highest at areas of new sea floor creation - decreases as one moves away from these points

10 Plate Movement The plates move due to the cooling and heating of the asthenosphere Hotter material rises, cooler material sinks Form convection cells Drives the crustal plates across the surface of the Earth

11 What are plates made of? Two (2) types of tectonic crust
Continental crust composed of felsic igneous rock continental crust rides on top of the plates due to its lower density Large amounts of granite Oceanic Crust Tend to slide under continental crust when they collide composed of mafic igneous rock Large amounts of basalt Remember: felsic = low density; mafic = high density

12 Kinds of Plate Boundaries

13 Diverging Boundaries Regions of spreading centers
Places where two plates are moving apart Most have mid ocean ridges Ex: Mid Atlantic Ridge Contains rift valleys - deep valleys where new material pushes aside older ocean crust fault lines run perpendicular to the valleys at various points earthquakes occur along the ridge

14 Hot magma rises Pushes on either side of the mid ocean ridge

15 Sliding or Transform Boundaries
Places where plates move past each other A fault is a break or crack in the crust where plates move against each other Ex: San Andreas Fault near San Francisco average rate of movement is 5 cm/yr some areas have not moved for over a century – possible earthquake spots

16 The San Andreas Fault in California
Side ways movement of the plates Can get caught – pressure builds – finally released as…

17 E A R T H Q U A K E

18 Homework for Earth Science
Tuesday Nite HW Read pp 295 – 300 Write out and answer questions 1 – 7 p 300 Wednesday Nite HW Read pp 301 – 304 Write out and answer questions 1 – 5 p 304 Thursday Nite HW Read pp 305 – 308 Write out and answer questions 1 – 5 p 308 Friday – QUIZ ON Plate Tectonics

19 Converging Boundaries I – When Plates Collide
Places where two plates move toward each other If both plates carry continents A collision boundary forms Continental collisions produce mountains, big and small - Ex: Himalayan Mtns, Appalachian Mtns

20 Continent- Continent Collisions

21 Converging Boundaries II Subduction Zones
A place where one plate slides under an overriding plate Deep sea trenches – characteristics of a subduction zone Ex: Marianas Trench off Japan when two oceanic plates collide chains of volcanic islands form Ex: Phillipines Occurs when an oceanic plate and a continental plate collide a mountain chain forms on the continent some may be volcanic a trench forms in the ocean

22 A diagram of a subduction zone

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