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1 Introduction to Clinical Psychology Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.

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1 1 Introduction to Clinical Psychology Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.

2 2 What is a Clinical Psychologist? Research Teaching Services Across the Lifespan Varying cultures Various SES levels

3 3 Activities Engaged in by a Clinical Psychologist Therapy/Intervention Diagnosis/Assessment Clinical Supervision Teaching Research Consultation Administration

4 4 Related Health Professions Psychiatry Counseling Psychology Psychiatric Social Workers School Psychologists Rehabilitation Psychologists Health Psychologists Psychiatric Nurses

5 5 Issues in both Counseling & Clinical Ph. D. programs APA accreditation Licensure Psychologist – protected term Psychological testing Issues with Psychologists providing medication

6 6 What is involved with a degree in Clinical Psychology? Statistics Psychotherapy Social psychology Research Psychometrics (test construction) Assessment (adult or child)

7 7 What is involved with a degree in Clinical Psychology? Clinical Practicum Ethical & Professional Issues Psychopathology Neuroscience Family & Group Process Cognitive Psychology

8 8 What is involved with a degree in Clinical Psychology? Experimental Psychopathology Developmental History & systems of psychology Violence in the family Internship Research The qualifying examination

9 9 Other Issues APA approved internship programs Psy. D. vs. Ph. D. Ph. D. Model or Boulder model of training.

10 10 Models of training 1949 landmark conference in Boulder, Colorado = Boulder model or the scientist-practitioner model. Evidence based medicine. More applied model. Metzoff (1984): If we train purely applied psychologists, they will be obliged to accept on faith what is handed down to them without being able to evaluate it.

11 11 The Psy. D. degree U. of Illinois (1968). Fear: that Psy. D’s won’t find employment.

12 12 Professional Schools No affiliations with universities. Autonomous with their own financial & organizational framework. 1987 – 45 professional schools. ½ doctorates in clinical psychology awarded by professional schools. Major handicap…. Many are not APA accredited.

13 13 Professional Regulation Who is well trained & who is not? This is an attempt to protect public interest. Certification – guarantees that people cannot call themselves “psychologists” unless certified by a state board of examiners.

14 14 Licensing Specifies nature of the title (psychologist) & training required for licensure. Usually defines what specific professional activities may be offered to the public for a fee. Usual requirements:  Education: doctoral degree from an APA-accredited Counseling or Clinical program  Experience: 1-2 years of supervised postdoctoral clinical experienced required.  Examinations: must pass the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology & whatever state examinations.

15 15 Licensing Requirements continued:  Administrative Requirements  Specialties

16 16 American Board of Professional Psychology ABPP 1947 established. Certification of professional competence in the fields of behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, clinical health psychology, clinical neuropsychology, counseling psychology, family psychology, forensic psychology, group psychology, psychoanalysis, rehabilitation psychology & school psychology. Oral exam, observations, clinical records, 5 years post doctoral experience.

17 17 National Register Self-certification. Licensed / certified in state. Private Practice Managed health care.

18 18 APA recommended changes Health care delivery systems Sensitivity to ethical issues Multidisciplinary environments Managed-care-relevant clinical skills Expertise in applied research Management & business skills technology

19 19 Prescription Privileges APA endorsed Background Benefits or Pros Cons

20 20 Multicultural Issues Pluralistic Society APA (2003) guidelines. Sue (1998) We must demonstrate cultural competence: a knowledge and appreciation of other cultural groups and the skills to be effective with members of these groups.

21 21 Sue (1998) Scientific mindedness Dynamic sizing Culture-specific expertise Issues of gender

22 22 Ethical Standards APA (1951). Most recent version 2002. 5 general principles:  Beneficence & non-maleficience  Fidelity & responsibility  Integrity  Justice  Respect for people’s rights & dignity

23 23 Competence Represent their training accurately. Actively present themselves correctly. Sensitive to treatment or assessment issues that could be influenced by a patient’s gender, ethnic or racial background, age, sexual orientation, religion, disability, or SES. Safeguard patients against personal issues that could affect performance.

24 24 Privacy & Confidentiality The role of confidentiality in the client- psychologist relationship. Not all information is deemed “privileged”. 1976 Tarasoff case. Jaffe v. Redmond (1996).

25 25 Human Relations Dual relationships. Sexual harassment & sexual intimacies Client welfare.

26 26 Other issues involving psychologists. Radio Call-in shows, TV talk shows, Internet groups…ethical? Principle 2.64-1 2002 APA ruling.

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