LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS RUSSIA PART 3: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN RUSSIA FLOODS WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES WILDFIRES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS INTENSITY REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME VVIVIIVIIIIX 3530 25 20 15 10 5 0 MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, landslides,..) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by s ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE... When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE... The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE... The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO DISASTER IS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
RUSSIA’S COMMINITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS QUAKE HAZARDS INVENTORY VULNERABILITY LOCATION EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK QUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION FORECASTS/SCENARIOS EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
THE NEFTEGORSK EARTHQUAKE– ONE OF RUSSIA’S NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES 11:03 pm; May 27, 1995 Mw7.1; Ms7.6 Depth: 9 km (5.4 miles)
THE NEFTEGORSK EARTHQUAKE: MAY 27, 1995 A “BULLS EYE EARTHQUAKE: The 40- kn-long rupture of the right-lateral strike-slip fault passed directly under Neftegorsk
THE NEFTEGORSK EARTHQUAKE: MAY 27, 1995 Neftegorsk was nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake, and approximately 2,000 of the 3,176 residents in the town were killed.
THE NEFTEGORSK EARTHQUAKE: MAY 27, 1995 406 person were rescued alive from under the rubble, but 37 of them died in a hospital following rescue
THE NEFTEGORSK EARTHQUAKE: MAY 27, 1995 The settlement was not rebuilt after the earthquake. Most of the 1,144 survivors were relocated.
TWO OF KAMCHATKA’S MANY EARTHQUAKES April 20, 2006 April 29, 2006
APRIL 20, 2006 KAMCHATKA EARTHQUAKE The April 20, 2006 Kamchatka earthquake was a M7.6 shock located near the coast of Koryak Autonomous Okrug at an estimated depth of 22 km.
APRIL 20, 2006 KAMCHATKA EARTHQUAKE The April 20, 2006 Kamchatka earthquake was a M7.6 shock located near the coast of Koryak Autonomous Okrug at an estimated depth of 22 km. This major quake and the aftershock sequence that followed damaged buildings and infrastructure in three villages.
APRIL 29, 2006 KAMCHATKA EARTHQUAKE The M6.6 earthquake, which struck on Saturday, April 29, was followed by a number of strong and medium aftershocks.
APRIL 29, 2006 KAMCHATKA EARTHQUAKE 1,000 people were evacuated, 40 people were injured, but no deaths.
APRIL 29, 2006 KAMCHATKA EARTHQUAKE Several diesel electric power stations were damaged.
RUSSIA’S NEXT EARTHQUAKE IN KAMCHATKA IS INEVITABLE ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER FROM A M4.4 OR LARGER EARTH- QUAKE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE.