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Chapter 34 The Laws of Electromagnetism Maxwell’s Equations Displacement Current Electromagnetic Radiation

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio waves -wave infra -red -rays x-rays ultra -violet

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The Equations of Electromagnetism (at this point …) Gauss’ Law for Electrostatics Gauss’ Law for Magnetism Faraday’s Law of Induction Ampere’s Law

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1 2 The Equations of Electromagnetism..monopole.. ?...there’s no magnetic monopole....!! Gauss’s Laws

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4 The Equations of Electromagnetism 3.. if you change a magnetic field you induce an electric field........... if you change a magnetic field you induce an electric field................is the reverse true..?.......is the reverse true..? Faraday’s Law Ampere’s Law

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...lets take a look at charge flowing into a capacitor......when we derived Ampere’s Law we assumed constant current... E B

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...lets take a look at charge flowing into a capacitor... E...when we derived Ampere’s Law we assumed constant current..... if the loop encloses one plate of the capacitor..there is a problem … I = 0 B Side view: (Surface is now like a bag:) E B

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Maxwell solved this problem by realizing that.... B E Inside the capacitor there must be an induced magnetic field... How?.

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Maxwell solved this problem by realizing that.... B E x x x x x x x x x A changing electric field induces a magnetic field Inside the capacitor there must be an induced magnetic field... How?. Inside the capacitor there is a changing E E B

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Maxwell solved this problem by realizing that.... B E x x x x x x x x x A changing electric field induces a magnetic field Inside the capacitor there must be an induced magnetic field... How?. Inside the capacitor there is a changing E where I d is called the displacement current E B

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Maxwell solved this problem by realizing that.... B E x x x x x x x x x A changing electric field induces a magnetic field Inside the capacitor there must be an induced magnetic field... How?. Inside the capacitor there is a changing E where I d is called the displacement current Therefore, Maxwell’s revision of Ampere’s Law becomes.... E B

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Derivation of Displacement Current For a capacitor, and. Now, the electric flux is given by EA, so:, where this current, not being associated with charges, is called the “Displacement current”, I d. Hence: and:

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Derivation of Displacement Current For a capacitor, and. Now, the electric flux is given by EA, so:, where this current, not being associated with charges, is called the “Displacement Current”, I d. Hence: and:

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Maxwell’s Equations of Electromagnetism Gauss’ Law for Electrostatics Gauss’ Law for Magnetism Faraday’s Law of Induction Ampere’s Law

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Maxwell’s Equations of Electromagnetism in Vacuum (no charges, no masses) Consider these equations in a vacuum...........no mass, no charges. no currents.....

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Maxwell’s Equations of Electromagnetism in Vacuum (no charges, no masses)

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Electromagnetic Waves Faraday’s law: dB/dt electric field Maxwell’s modification of Ampere’s law dE/dt magnetic field These two equations can be solved simultaneously. The result is: E(x, t) = E P sin (kx- t) B(x, t) = B P sin (kx- t) ˆ z ˆ j

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B E Electromagnetic Waves

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B E Special case..PLANE WAVES... satisfy the wave equation Maxwell’s Solution Electromagnetic Waves

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Plane Electromagnetic Waves x EyEy BzBz E(x, t) = E P sin (kx- t) B(x, t) = B P sin (kx- t) ˆ z ˆ j c

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Static wave F(x) = F P sin (kx + ) k = 2 k = wavenumber = wavelength F(x) x Moving wave F(x, t) = F P sin (kx - t ) = 2 f = angular frequency f = frequency v = / k F(x) x v

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x v Moving wave F(x, t) = F P sin (kx - t ) What happens at x = 0 as a function of time? F(0, t) = F P sin (- t) F For x = 0 and t = 0 F(0, 0) = F P sin (0) For x = 0 and t = t F (0, t) = F P sin (0 – t) = F P sin (– t) This is equivalent to: kx = - t x = - ( /k) t F(x=0) at time t is the same as F[x=-( /k)t] at time 0 The wave moves to the right with speed /k

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Plane Electromagnetic Waves x EyEy BzBz Notes: Waves are in Phase, but fields oriented at 90 0. k= Speed of wave is c= /k (= f At all times E=cB. E(x, t) = E P sin (kx- t) B(x, t) = B P sin (kx- t) ˆ z ˆ j c

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Maxwell’s Equations The two Gauss’s laws are symmetrical, apart from the absence of the term for magnetic monopoles in Gauss’s law for magnetism Faraday’s.

Maxwell’s Equations The two Gauss’s laws are symmetrical, apart from the absence of the term for magnetic monopoles in Gauss’s law for magnetism Faraday’s.

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