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Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic ROCK.

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Presentation on theme: "Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic ROCK."— Presentation transcript:

1 Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic ROCK

2 Igneous ROCK

3 igneous rock – formed from magma or lava

4 classified by 1. origin where formed? on or beneath Earth’s surface 2. texture depends on size & shape of mineral crystals 3. mineral composition Silica content

5 1. Origin extrusive rock= formed from lava on Earth’s surface
ex. basalt intrusive rock= formed from magma below Earth’s surface ex. granite

6 2. Texture depends on size & shape of mineral crystals

7 different textures 1. fine-grained 2. coarse-grained 3. porphyritic
small crystals or no crystals rapid cooling 2. coarse-grained large crystals slow cooling 3. porphyritic large crystals surrounded by smaller crystals magma cools slowly- then rapidly 4. glassy no crystals form extremely rapid cooling

8 fine-grained coarse-grained

9 porphyritic

10 3. Mineral Composition lava low in silica dark colored rocks
Examples: basalt, scoria lava high in silica light colored rocks Examples: granite, pumice

11 Uses of igneous rocks hard, dense, & durable ex:

12 1. granite Used for building material Countertops, floors statues

13 2. pumice good abrasive for cleaning & polishing

14 3. basalt Used in making gravel in construction

15 Cooling lava forms extrusive rock with small or no crystals
Cooling magma forms intrusive rock with large crystals

16 Sedimentary ROCK

17 Sedimentary rocks are the second great rock class
Sedimentary rocks are the second great rock class. Whereas igneous rocks are born hot, sedimentary rocks are born cool at the Earth's surface, mostly under water. They usually consist of layers or strata, hence they are also called stratified rocks.

18 Identifying Sedimentary Rocks
Small rocks, fragments and organic remains that have been moved by water, wind or other agents of erosion are called sediment.

19 Sedimentary rocks are the result of the following processes:
Mechanical weathering: a rock is broken down without changing its mineral make-up. Ex: waves, wind, running water, gravity

20 2. Chemical weathering: a rock is broken down by chemical reactions that change its mineral composition. Ex: oxidation (rusting) & acid rain

21 3. Erosion: the process where. weathered material (sediments)
3. Erosion: the process where weathered material (sediments) get carried away

22 4. Deposition: the process by. which sediments settle down
4. Deposition: the process by which sediments settle down in a NEW location

23 Over time, sediment is compacted and cemented together.

24 Sedimentary Rocks 1. Compaction
Sediments are deposited, layer upon layer builds up. Pressure from the upper layers pushes down on the lower layers. If the sediments are small, they can stick together and form solid rock

25 Sedimentary Rocks 2. Cementation
If sediments are large, like sand and pebbles, pressure alone can’t make them stick together. Large sediments have to be cemented together. As water moves through soil and rock, it picks up dissolved minerals such as quartz and calcite. These minerals are deposited between the sediments. Upon solidifying, these minerals, acting as natural cements, hold the sediment together like glue, making clastic sedimentary rock.

26 Sedimentary Rocks Stacked Rocks
Sedimentary rocks often form as layers. The older layers are usually on the bottom because they were deposited first. Stacked Rocks Layered rock is also called Sometimes, forces within Earth overturn layers of rock, and the oldest are NO longer on the bottom.

27 Sedimentary rocks account for 75% of the rocks exposed at the Earth’s surface
Label the Oldest layer? Youngest layer? intrusion

28 There are Three Major Types of Sedimentary Rocks

29 Sedimentary Rocks Clastic rock- sedimentary rock formed from rock fragments of other rocks (mentioned above) Clastic rocks have granular textures, much like sugar. They are named according to the shapes and size of the sediments that form them.

30 From smallest to largest

31 Examples Conglomerates: Conglomerate rocks are made of large rock pieces that have been cemented together. When looking at this rock type, you can easily see the parts that it has been made of. Pushing hard on single rock pieces in the conglomerate may result in these pieces being broken off of the rock. Sandstone: Sandstone rocks are made of fine sand grains. Like conglomerate, the grains of sand have been cemented together. Rubbing the surface of sandstone rocks may result in small grains of sand being rubbed off of the rock. Shale: Shale is made up of very fine grains of clay like particles. The texture of shale is very smooth to the touch. If you apply pressure to the shale, it is possible to break it into pieces that also have smooth textures.

32 2. Organic rocks sedimentary rocks formed from the life processes or remains of living organisms
Fossil-rich Limestone, made from the mineral calcite, is formed from the shells of clams, mussels, corals and snails. Coal is made from plants that died in swamps millions of years ago.

33 Organic Sedimentary Rocks
If a rock is made completely of shell fragments that you can see, the rock is called coquina (koh KEE nuh).

34 3. Chemical Rocks Chemical sedimentary rocks formed when dissolved minerals come out of solution. Minerals collect when seas or lakes evaporate. The deposits of minerals that come out of solution form sediments and rocks. Chemical sedimentary rocks are NOT made from pieces of preexisting rocks.

35 Halite is an example of a rock that formed when water evaporated and left behind minerals. Halite forms rock salt. Companies mine these deposits because rock salt is an important resource. Chemical limestone forms when calcite comes out of a solution in ocean water. Limestone can contain other minerals but must be at least 50% calcite

36 Metamorphic ROCK

37 Formation of Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot watery fluids are called metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks can form from igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks. Each type of metamorphic rock can come from several kinds of parent rocks.

38 Heat and Pressure 1. Rocks beneath Earth’s surface are under great pressure from rock layers above them. Temperature also increases with depth in the Earth. Depending upon the amount of heat & pressure applied, one type of rock can change into several different metamorphic rocks.

39 Example of Metamorphic Transition
Heat and Pressure Example of Metamorphic Transition

40 Heat and Pressure The sedimentary rock shale will change into slate.
As increasing pressure and temperature are applied, the slate can change into phyllite, then schist, and eventually gneiss. Slate Phyllite Schist Gneiss

41 Heat and Pressure Schist also can form when basalt is metamorphosed, or changed, and gneiss can come from granite. Basalt Granite Schist Gneiss

42 Hot Fluids 2. Hot Fluids, which are mostly water with dissolved elements and compounds, can react chemically with a rock and change its composition. This is what happens when rock surround a hot magma plume reacts w/ these fluids Most fluids that transform rocks during metamorphic processes are hot and mainly are comprised of water and carbon dioxide. In the presence of hot, water-rich fluids, solid rock can change in mineral composition without having to melt.

43 Classifying Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic rocks can be classified according to composition and texture Foliated (texture)- when mineral grains line up in parallel layers (dark/light bands) Examples: gneiss (NISE) (parent rock granite) & slate (parent rock shale) Non-Foliated (texture)- when mineral grains grow and rearrange but do NOT form layers Examples: marble (parent rock limestone) & quartzite (parent rock sandstone)

44 Development of foliation due to directed pressure (stress)

45 Foliated Nonfoliated

46 The Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a continuous cycle and a dynamic process! The processes of melting, cooling, heat & pressure, weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction & cementation slowly change rock from one kind to another…the cycle NEVER ends!

47 The Rock Cycle

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