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Globalization In The Apparel Industry: A Study of Preparedness of Indian Industry

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Presentation on theme: "Globalization In The Apparel Industry: A Study of Preparedness of Indian Industry"— Presentation transcript:


2 Globalization In The Apparel Industry: A Study of Preparedness of Indian Industry
Dr. Pradeep Joshi Asso. Prof.,NIFT, New Delhi Dr. S.M Ishtiaque Prof., IIT, New Delhi Dr. Sudhir Jain Asso. Prof., IIT, New Delhi 7th IFFTI Annual Conference 2005 at Bunka University ,Tokyo, Japan

3 Trade Restriction on Textile and Clothing
The Cotton Arrangements ( ) The Multifibre Arrangement (1974 – 1994) Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (1995 – 2004) WTO Era- 1st Jan 2005 onwards

4 The Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) has governed international trade in textiles and clothing since 1974. The MFA enabled developed nations, mainly the USA, European Union and Canada to restrict imports from developing countries through a system of quotas. The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) mandated progressive phase out of import quotas established under MFA & The integration of textiles & clothing into the multilateral trading system before January 2005.

5 Total world trade in Textiles & Clothing ( value in US$ Millions)
Year 1990 1995 2000 2003 Textiles 104354 152319 154366 169422 Clothing 108129 158353 197498 225940 Source: WTO

6 Leading exporters of clothing
2003 % Share China 52.06 23.0 EU 19.04 8.4 Turkey 9.93 4.4 H.Kong 8.20 3.6 Mexico 7.34 3.2 India 6.45 2.9 USA 5.53 2.5 Bangladesh 4.32 1.9 Indonesia 4.10 1.8 Romania 4.06 Source: Compiled from WTO data

7 Leading importers of clothing
2003 % share USA 71.27 31.5 EU 60.39 26.7 Japan 19.48 8.6 H. Kong 15.94 7.0 Canada 4.50 2.0 Switzerland 3.92 1.7 Russia 3.71 1.6 Mexico 3.03 1.3 S. Korea 2.49 1.1 Australia 2.10 1.0 Source: Compiled from WTO data


9 Apparel imports to US market
( January- June, 2005) Imports 2004 2005 change % change WORLD 35,466 38,827 3,361 9.48% TOP TEN COUNTRIES: CHINA 97.15 MEXICO 3,879 3,633 -246 -6.34% HONDURAS 1,516 1,530 14 0.89% BANGLEDESH 1,056 1,284 228 21.54% SALVADOR 967 956 -11 -1.18% VIETNAM 1,454 1,440 -14 -0.95% DOM REP 1,133 1,086 -46 -4.10% INDONASIA 1,386 1,595 209 15.06% INDIA 420.08 37.59 (Source - Compiled from US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, OFFICE OF TEXTILES AND APPAREL)

10 US MARKET (Jan-June 2005 over corresponding period in year 2004.)
Import of apparel in US market has increased by 9.48%. There is tremendous growth in imports from China(94.33%) India(34.44%), Bangaladesh(21.54%) Negative growth in imports from Mexico,Dominian Repubic etc.

11 Apparel imports into US: Competitive scenario
Qty in million Metre square value in US$ million From Jan-Jun 04 Jan-Jun 05 % change Qty value India 312.7 413.75 32.31 37.59 China 1229 125.1 97.15 Bangladesh 425.0 858.82 512.90 20.66 22.73 Pakistan 237.4 497.00 265.18 551.66 11.69 11.00 Sri Lanka 190. 678.44 225.45 795.99 18.39 17.33 (Source: Compiled from trade data)

12 Competitive position in US market
China is highest gainer of phasing out of quotas in US market with % growth in volume and 97.15%(value). The imports from India have increased by 32.31%(quantity) and37.59%(value). The other gainers of WTO era are Bangladesh (22.73% value growth) followed by Sri Lanka (17.33% value growth) and Pakistan (11% value growth).

13 Apparel Imports to EU market
(Value in million Euro) Apparel type Jan-Jun 04 Jan-Jun 05 % change Knitted -3.4 Woven -2.4 total -2.9 (Source: Compiled from trade data)

14 EU Market (Jan-June 2005 over corresponding period in year 2004.)
The trends in EU market reflect a decrease of (2.9%) in imports. The negative import is seen in knitted (-3.4%) as well as woven (-2.4%) apparel.

15 Apparel import into EU from India
(Value in million Euro, quantity in million kg) Apparel type Jan-Jun 04 Jan-Jun 05 % change Qty Value Knitted 54.99 627.2 65.83 688.9 19.71 9.84 Woven 40.26 736.1 42.87 872.5 6.48 18.53 total 95.25 1363. 108.7 1561. 14.12 14.53 (Source: Compiled from trade data)

16 Position of India in EU market
The imports from India has increased by 14.12%(qty) and 14.53(value). The growth in imports is 19.71%(qty) for knitted and 9.84%(value) while there is growth of 18.53%(value) for woven apparel imports in EU during this period. Import of knitted apparel has increased in quantity while woven apparel have better growth in EU imports in value.

17 Apparel import into EU from other Asian Countries
(Euro mn, qty mn kg) Apparel type Jan-June 04 Jan-June 05 % change Bangladesh Knitted 37.17 59.30 59.6 Woven 70.34 76.70 9.1 107.51 136.00 26.5 China 212.92 312.77 46.9 300.52 467.81 55.7 513.44 780.58 52.03 Pakistan 11.94 11.30 -5.3 7.85 7.46 -5.0 19.79 18.76 -5.2 Sri Lanka 5.83 5.59 -4.1 12.19 13.34 9.4 total 18.02 18.93 5.0 (Source: Compiled from trade data)

18 Competitive position in EU market
The imports from China have increased by 52.03%(value) followed by Bangladesh (26.5%(value) and India. The imports from Sri Lanka have increased marginally(5%) while imports from Pakistan have decreased by 5.2%

19 Summary…… India & China are biggest gainers in WTO era
Import patterns are set to change in favour of Asian countries.


21 Indian Textile & Clothing in World Trade
India has 3.8% share in world textile & 2.9% in clothing trade. Source: Compiled from WTO

22 India’s Clothing Exports
The exports of clothing is increasing with increase in share in EU and US markets . EU & US are the largest market of clothing exports from India Source: compiled from AEPC Handbook of Statistics.

23 UVR of Clothing Exports
Average UVR of clothing exports from India is around $ 3.5. Source: compiled from AEPC Handbook of Statistics.

24 Productivity Levels of Clothing Firms
The productivity for most of the clothing items is relatively low in India. Hong Kong, Taiwan, China are having much higher productivity than India Source: CII Accenture “Textile Industry: Road to Growth” Report- 2002

25 Summary Increasing percentage share of clothing in world trade
Indian textile & clothing trade is concentrated more on textiles EU, China are leading exporters of clothing. EU, US and Japan are leading importers of clothing.

26 India’s trade is for low value items in clothing
Productivity levels as well as investments in clothing firm are relatively low in India. With integration of textile and clothing trade into WTO, the trade is going to be liberalized. Increasing competition, decreasing prices, shifting trade pattern are expected in post MFA scenario.

27 Research Design Sample Size
Primary data collection was done through response of garment exporters, fabric manufacturers and buying houses using three separate structured questionnaires. Sample Size Garment Exporters 145 Fabric Manufacturers 69 Buying Houses 38


29 Average Price (FOB) for Different product Categories being Exported
or Sourced from India (Response of Garment Exporters)

30 Average Price (FOB) for Different Product Categories being exported or Sourced from India
(Response of Buying Houses)

31 Productivity Level for Clothing Firms ( Response of Garment Exporters )


33 Perception Difference between Buying Houses & Garment Exporters

34 Indian Textile Industry: Overview

35 Sector-Wise Production of Cloth
The production of fabric from powerloom has increased while that from mill sector has reduced in last two decades. Source: compiled from Compendium of Textile Statistics

36 Fibre Mix The international demand of textile is more of MMF while the production as well as exports from India are of Cotton indicating a mis-match. Source : KSA Analysis , 2000



39 Response of Garment Exporters

40 Response of Buying Houses

41 Summary Indian Clothing industry primarily caters to lower end of the market. The clothing manufacturing in India has lower productivity Indian clothing manufacturing industry is less competitive due to lower productivity, less research and development effort, technology, non-availability of finishing facility and is not being able to move up in the value chain.

42 The unfavorable cost competitiveness is also caused due to non-availability of raw material (fabric) particularly MMF which is being increasingly imported from China, Taiwan and Korea. The increasing import of fabric is not only affecting the cost competitiveness of Indian clothing industry but it is also affecting textile (fabric) industry


44 Comparison of Responses from Garment Exporters & Buying Houses

45 To Conclude……. To face competition in WTO era the focus on product development & design is needed which requires investment into latest technology & focus on better sources of raw material. Clothing manufacturers are required to make efforts for changing the perception of being producer of basic items. Product specialization is required to be built up. The need is to have specialization in knits along with woven

46 New markets (besides US & EU) are to be explored
…Contd New markets (besides US & EU) are to be explored Indian fabric is preferred for 100% cotton, while for synthetics China, Taiwan & Korea are becoming sourcing base due to cheaper price and superior quality. The requirement of clothing industry is for consistency in quality and quantity, wider width and lower cost.

47 …Contd India’s fabric sector needs to become competitive by investment in latest technology. The government also needs to intervene by having a competitive policy framework in tune with other competitive countries in the world.

48 Thank You! Dr.Pradeep Joshi Department Of Fashion Management Studies
National Institute of Fashion Technology New Delhi

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