Presentation on theme: "Impacts of Community Protected Area and Community Forestry on Poverty Alleviation Two case studies in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia Supported by MINZAS."— Presentation transcript:
Impacts of Community Protected Area and Community Forestry on Poverty Alleviation Two case studies in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia Supported by MINZAS Program Presented by Hem Chanthou RUA Research Advisor: Dr. Heng Chan Thoeun MI Research Advisor: Aryuwath Pratumsa 12 February 2012 Research Methodology and Regional Cooperation
Presentation outline 1. Introduction Statement of the problem, Objectives of the study Scope and limitations of the study 2. Literature review Concept of Impact Assessment, Choice of Conceptual Framework Definition and Concept of CBNRM, Definition of CPA and CF Definition and Concept of Poverty 3. Conceptual Framework of the Research
1. Introduction Statement of problem The 1990s, the Cambodian forestry sector was in a state of crisis Until late 1990’s NRM rested under: (i) MOE for forest within the PAs; & (ii) MAFF for protected forest and forests outside PAs. The communities not involved in NRM although the natural resource contributes an important share in their livelihoods CSES 2004, 35% or 4.5 million people live below poverty line, (in rural area 39%) and 20% below the lower food poverty line. Many CBNRM models started the mid 2000s, to contribute to natural resource conservation and poverty alleviation, but no evidence of impacts on poverty alleviation due to no studies.
1. Introduction (continue) Research Questions What process had been promoted CBNRM? Do CPA and CF communities have necessary capacity to achieve established objectives? How have the CPA & CF performed in alleviating the poverty? What are the impacts on socio-economic status of the communities and the HHs in comparison to non-community HHs? How will these impacts be sustained in the long term? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each CPA and CF? What recommendations can be provided?
1. Introduction (continue) Research Objectives: To understand the establishment process of CPA and CF. To assess the capacity level of the CPA and CF in performing their roles and responsibility. To assess the impacts of CPA and CF operation on the socio-economic status of the selected communities. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the current CBNRM models To provide recommendations to deliver greater impacts.
1. Introduction (continue) Scope and limitations of the study Cover one CPA (of MOE) and one CF (of MAFF) The study uses the poverty line set by the RGC. Main variables are per capita income of HHs (income poverty line) and HHs expenditure on food consumption (food poverty line) per person per day. Will assess the community status in general Will also assess the general environmental status Time limitations and budge, the sample size will be limited interviewees, the quality of the study could be limited.
2. Literature review Concept of Impact Assessment (IA) IA is the process of identifying the anticipated or actual impacts of a development intervention, on those social, economic and environmental factors, which the intervention is designed to effect or may unintentionally affect. Barnes and Sebstad (2000) defined IA as a study to identify changes that results from a program by employing methods to establish plausible association between changes experienced and participation in the program. A simple paradigm for an IA is: X causes Y or a program results in changes.
Definition and Concept of CBNRM CBNRM is a diversity of co-management approaches that strive to improve governance and empower local communities to participate cooperatively in the sustainable use, conservation and management of natural resources. Definition of CPA and CF used in this study – Traditional models of CBNRM have long existed in the region. – By “traditional models” is meant systems of local area or forest management that were created spontaneously in a community. – Introduced models are relatively recent and are growing rapidly. – By “introduced” models of CPA and CF is meant a system of management presented from outsider/government. – This study will focus on introduced CPA and CF. 2. Literature review (continue)
Definition and Concept of Poverty Poverty has many aspects of deprivation. People are poor if they do not have adequate resources to buy all the commodities that they need. Similarly, people who lack the ability to live and function properly in society or are more vulnerable to shocks and disasters have less well-being and are likely to be poor. Poverty is also associated with insufficient outcomes with respect to many human development indicators, such as health, nutrition, education and literacy. Poverty is also related to social exclusions and deficient social relations, vulnerability and insecurity, and to low voices, power and self-confidence. Poverty is also a lack of opportunity, and an inability to make use of existing opportunities (NIS, 2006)
2. Literature review (continue) The Poverty Line The total poverty line: in 2004 was estimated at 2351 Riel (US$ 0.59) in Phnom Penh, 1952 Riel (US$ 0.49) in other urban areas and 1753 Riel (US$ 0.44) in rural areas. The food poverty line: translate the food intake into Riel to achieve a level of 2,100 Kcal/person/day; thus the food poverty line was estimated at 1782 Riel ($ 0.45) in Phnom Penh, 1568 Riel ($ 0.39) in other urban areas and 1389 Riel ($ 0.35) in rural areas (NIS, 2006).
3. Research Conceptual Framework InterventionsCBNRM process Outputs Enabling Environment - Government Policy Frameworks - Past & on-going support project or programs Capacity Building Program - Types of training program - Quality of training materials. - Training follow up actions - Target groups People’s participation -Kind of people contribution Level of people participations CPA/CF management plan implementation Natural Resources Community Assets Impacts Delivery Economic Status of households Community status -Income -Food consumptions -Childs Education -Improve Housing -Improve Sanitation -More Assets -Savings and debts -Social accessibility -Leadership -Unity/cohesion -Cultural/traditional -Negotiation power -Safety net structures -Gender status -Violence Environment status -Species diversity -Forest coverage and condition -Habitats, Water conditions Strengths and Weakness Compare with non-community members Recommendations and implication