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The March in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries Europe and America.

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Presentation on theme: "The March in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries Europe and America."— Presentation transcript:

1 The March in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries Europe and America

2 Why did the march become so popular in the 19th century? I.Technological advances led to better woodwind and brass instruments II.The Civic Orchestra became a prominent institution III.Numerous Revolutions and Wars engendered patriotism IV.The Middle Class wanted more accessible music

3 I. Technology There were many scientific advances in the 19th century: “The Industrial Revolution” Led to improvements in instrument manufacture, especially woodwinds and brass Percussion instruments also became more prominent

4 Adolphe Sax 1814-1894 Belgian musician and inventor/manufacturer of instruments Perfected many brass instruments and the bass clarinet Invented the saxophone and saxhorn Championed by Berlioz, who used many of the new instruments

5 The Saxophone First shown at the Paris Exhibition of 1844 First used in an opera orchestra later the same year Not really accepted as a regular member of the orchestra, but used in symphonic and military bands and later in jazz

6 II. The Civic Orchestra A permanent ensemble giving a regular schedule of concerts Rare before the middle of the 19th century, even in large cities After mid 19th-century, even small towns had orchestras and town bands These ensembles often participated in parades and festivals for which marches were often appropriate  Johann Strauss, Jr.’s Orchestra

7 III. Revolution The era of revolutions began in the late 18th century: --American Revolution, 1776 --French Revolution, 1789 In the 19th century, there were even more revolutions in Europe Military bands became important Much band music was patriotic  Delacroix, “Liberty Leading the People,” 1830

8 IV. The Middle Class The growing population wanted more music, especially music they could relate to Orchestras and bands played in concert halls, but also in dance halls, music halls, parade grounds, and town squares Music was everywhere and was important in everyday life  “Johann Strauss, Sr.’s Orchestra in the Volksgarten, Vienna”

9 The March Written for orchestras as well as for military bands Musical features: Distinct sections that return throughout the piece Prominent rhythms Importance of wind, brass, and percussion instruments

10 The March in Europe: Vienna Vienna had a long tradition of good music and prominent composers: --Haydn --Mozart --Beethoven --Schubert --Brahms --The Strauss Family

11 The Strauss Family Johann, Sr. (1804- 1849) Johann, Jr. (1825- 1899) Josef (1827-1870 Eduard (1835-1916)

12 Johann Strauss, Sr. 1804-1849 Along with Josef Lanner, he made the Viennese waltz a popular dance, as well as an art form Formed his own dance orchestra in 1825 and toured Europe extensively, becoming a popular “star” Also composed marches and other genres, especially dances Radetsky March

13 Johann Strauss, Jr. (center) with brothers, Eduard (left) and Josef (right)

14 The March in the U. S. A. Brass Band Movement began in the 1850s Later, during the Civil War, military bands became very important Post-Civil War America emphasized optimistic, often patriotic music  Town band, ca. 1850

15 Music in Middle-Class America Social functions were often simple and involved music- making Most middle-class households had pianos Many people played instruments  G. Hollingsworth, “The Hollingsworth Family,” ca. 1840

16 The March in the USA Patrick Gilmore And John Philip Sousa

17 Patrick Gilmore (1829-1892) “Father of the American Band” Emigrated from Ireland to America and settled in Boston in 1849 Raised the musical level of the American band Conducted band performances all over the world Revered by J. P. Sousa

18 John Philip Sousa 1854-1932

19 John Philip Sousa America’s “March King”

20 Sousa’s Life Born in Washington, D. C. in 1854 His father played trombone in the US Marine Band At the age of six, John began to study music--voice, piano, violin, flute, cornet, baritone, trombone, and alto horn After he tried to join a circus band at the age of 13, his father apprenticed him to the Marine Band Discharged from the Marines in 1875, but later returned to lead the band Toured all over the world until his death in 1932

21 Sousa’s Band in Johannesburg, So. Africa (1910-11)

22 Some of Sousa’s band members

23 R. Meredith Wilson Played flute and piccolo for three years with Sousa’s band Later composed The Music Man, a musical about a slick band instrument salesman who takes an Iowa town by storm Shows the importance of a band music in early 20th- century America

24 Sousa’s Music Composed many different types of music, including operettas, overtures, songs, and solo works Most famous for his patriotic marches-- composed 135  Childe Hassam, “Allies Day 1917”

25 Some of Sousa’s Marches Semper Fidelis (1888) The Thunderer (1889) Washington Post (1889) The Liberty Bell (1893) King Cotton (1895) El Capitan (1896) Stars and Stripes Forever (1896): the official march of the USA Hands Across the Sea (1899) The Invincible Eagle (1901) The Glory of the Yankee Navy (1909 America First (1916) Boy Scouts of America (1916) Flags of Freedom (1918) Old Ironsides (1926)

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