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Presentation on theme: "1 CHAPTER TWO P ERSONAL P ROTECTIVE E QUIPMENT. P ROTECTING E MPLOYEES FROM W ORKPLACE H AZARDS Employers must protect employees from workplace hazards."— Presentation transcript:


2 P ROTECTING E MPLOYEES FROM W ORKPLACE H AZARDS Employers must protect employees from workplace hazards such as machines, hazardous substances, and dangerous work procedures that can cause injury Employers must:  Use all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards  Then use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) if these controls do not eliminate the hazards. Remember, PPE is the last level of control! 2

3 P AYMENT FOR PPE When PPE is required to protect employees, it must be provided by the employer at no cost to employees, except for specific items, such as: Safety-toe footwear, Prescription safety eyewear, Everyday clothing and weather-related gear, and Logging boots 3

4 E NGINEERING C ONTROLS 4 If... The machine or work environment can be physically changed to prevent employee exposure to the potential hazard, Then... The hazard can be eliminated with an engineering control.

5 E NGINEERING C ONTROLS ( CONT ’ D ) Initial design specifications Substitute less harmful material Change process Enclose process Isolate process Ventilation 5

6 W ORK P RACTICE C ONTROLS 6 If... Employees can be removed from exposure to the potential hazard by changing the way they do their jobs, Then... The hazard can be eliminated with a work practice control.

7 W ORK P RACTICE C ONTROLS ( CONT ’ D ) Use of wet methods to suppress dust Personal hygiene Housekeeping and maintenance Job rotation of workers 7 Examples...

8 E XAMPLES OF PPE Eye - safety glasses, goggles Face - face shields Head - hard hats Feet - safety shoes Hands and arms - gloves Bodies - vests Hearing - earplugs, earmuffs 8

9 E STABLISHING A PPE P ROGRAM Sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employer’s routine operation First -- assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE 9

10 T RAINING When PPE is necessary What type of PPE is necessary How to properly put on, take off, adjust, and wear Limitations of the PPE Proper care, maintenance, useful life 10 Employees required to use PPE must be trained to know at least the following:


12 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES OF EYE INJURIES ? Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or sawdust Molten metal that might splash Acids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splash Blood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatter Intense light such as that created by welding and lasers 12

13 S AFETY S PECTACLES Made with metal/plastic safety frames Most operations require side shields Used for moderate impact from particles produced by such jobs as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, and scaling 13

14 G OGGLES Protect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashes Some goggles fit over corrective lenses 14

15 W ELDING S HIELDS 15 Protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from SAAsparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cuttingA

16 L ASER S AFETY G OGGLES 16 Protect eyes from intense concentrations of light produced by lasers.

17 F ACE S HIELDS Protect the face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids Do not protect employees from impact hazards 17


19 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES OF HEAD INJURIES ? Falling objects Bumping head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams Contact with exposed electrical conductors 19

20 C LASSES OF H ARD H ATS Class G (formerly Class A) 1 General service (e.g., mining, building construction, shipbuilding, lumbering, and manufacturing) Good impact protection but limited voltage protection Class E (formerly Class B) 1 Electrical work Protect against falling objects, high-voltage shock/burns Class C Designed for comfort, offer limited protection Protects heads that may bump against fixed objects, but do not protect against falling objects or electrical shock 20


22 E XAMPLES OF H EARING P ROTECTORS 22 EarmuffsEarplugsCanal Caps


24 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES OF FOOT INJURIES ? Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees’ feet Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes Molten metal that might splash on feet Hot or wet surfaces Slippery surfaces 24

25 S AFETY S HOES Have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect against hot surfaces common in roofing, paving, and hot metal industries Some have metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds May be designed to be electrically conductive for use in explosive atmospheres, or nonconductive to protect from workplace electrical hazards 25

26 M ETATARSAL G UARDS 26 A part of the shoes or strapped to the outside of shoes to protect the instep from impact and compression


28 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE HAND INJURIES YOU NEED TO GUARD AGAINST ? Burns Bruises Abrasions Cuts Punctures Fractures Amputations Chemical Exposures 28

29 T YPES OF G LOVES 29 Norfoil laminate resists permeation and breakthrough by an array of toxic/hazardous chemicals. Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors; frequently used for ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) and esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate).

30 T YPES OF G LOVES ( CONT ’ D ) 30 OSHA Office of Training and Education Viton is highly resistant to permeation by chlorinated and aromatic solvents. Nitrile provides protection against a wide variety of solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts, snags, punctures and abrasions.

31 T YPES OF G LOVES ( CONT ’ D ) 31 Kevlar protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion. Stainless steel mesh protects against cuts and lacerations.


33 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE CAUSES OF BODY INJURIES ? Intense heat Splashes of hot metals and other hot liquids Impacts from tools, machinery, and materials Cuts Hazardous chemicals Contact with potentially infectious materials, like blood Radiation 33

34 B ODY P ROTECTION 34 Cooling Vest Sleeves and Apron

35 B ODY P ROTECTION 35 Coveralls Full Body Suit

36 36 Sign And symbols

37 Meaning of particular order signs for PPE

38 M 001 Protect eyes M 001-01 Use appropriate goggles! M 001-02 Keep goggles on! M 001-03 Work with appropriate goggles! M 001-04 Approach only with appropriate goggles M 001-05 Use goggles when working with air pistol M 002 Protect head M 003 Protect ears M 002-01 Work with the safety helmet on! M 002-02 Entrance only with the safety helmet on M 002-03 Use the appropriate helmet! M 002-04 Keep the helmet on! M 003-01 Work with ear protectors! M 003-02 Use appropriate ear protectors! M 003-03 Keep ear protectors on

39 M 004 Protect breathing organs M 005 Protect legs and feet M 006 Protect hands M 004-01 Work with the protective mask on! M 004-02 Entrance only with the protective mask on M 004-03 Use the appropriate protective mask! M 004-04 Use the respirator! M 004-05 Use the protective filter! M 004-06 Use the respirator against dust! M 004-07 Keep the protective mask on! M 005-01 Work in safety boots! M 005-02 Use the appropriate safety boots! M 005-03 Keep the safety boots on! M 005-04 Work in insulating boots! M 006-01 Work with protective gloves! M 006-02 Work only with insulating gloves! M 006-03 Use the appropriate protective gloves! M 006-04 Keep the protective gloves on your hands!

40 M 009 Use safety hanging system M 008 Protect the face M 007 Wear protective clothing M 007-01 Entrance only in the protective clothing M 007-02 Use the appropriate protective clothing! M 007-03 Keep the protective clothing on M 008-01 Entrance only with the safety shield on your face! M 008-02 Use the appropriate shield on your face! M 008-03 Work with the face shield on! M 008-04 Keep the safety shield on your face! M 009-01 Use the safety equipment! M 009-02 Lock with the safety belt! M 009-03 Use safety belts! M 009-04 Use safety belts and rope!

41 M 010 Pedestrian route M 012 Use the overpass M 010-01 Pedestrians M 010-02 Pedestrians only M 010-03 Use the pedestrian crossing! M 012-01 Use the overpass!

42 M 011 O RDER SIGN ( GENERALLY ) M 011-01 Do not close! Working inside M 011-02 Work only here! M 011-03 Get out only here! M 011-04 Work only under the supervision of the person responsible! M 011-05 The equipment can be operated only by the person responsible M 011-06 Protective cover can be taken away only when the equipment is not in operation! M 011-07 Clean, repair, and adjust the machine only when not in operation! M 011-08 Small injuries are to be treated too! M 011-09 Shut gas conduction before leaving! M 011-10 Disconnect the current before leaving! M 011-11 Press the button in emergency! M 011-12 Turn off in emergency! M 011-13 Ground before starting work! M 011-14 Protect containers against the sun and heat! M 011-15 Discharge high voltage before entering! M 011-16 Discharge high voltage before opening! M 011-17 Work with only not sparking instruments! M 011-18 Leave the transportation area! M 011-19 Delimited area must always be free M 011-20 Pass carefully! M 011-21 Protect against a spontaneous movement! M 011-22 Extinguish with sand! M 011-23 Entrance only in overshoes M 011-24 Use protective equipment for work! M 011-25 Notify dependent workplaces before starting operation! M 011-26 Announce yourself to the manager before entering this area!

43 M 013 Unplug before opening M 018 Use the safety apron before opening! M 013-01 Unplug M 018-01 Use the safety apron

44 M 014 Detach before operating M 014-01 Unplug before working! M 014-02 Switch off before operating! M 014-03 Switch off before starting working! M 014-04 Switch off before entering! M 014-05 Switch off both sides! M 014-06 Switch off also public lighting! M 014-07 Turn off the switch before entering! M 014-08 Switch off the breaker...... before entering! M 014-11 Switch off the breaker before taking the cover away! M 014-10 Switch off the main trolley before getting on the crane! M 014-09 Switch off the breaker in the crane cabin before entering! M 014-12 Switch the lights off when leaving the workplace!

45 M 020 Protect eyes and ears M 019 Protect head, eyes and ears M 019-01 Use the helmet, goggles and ear protectors! M 020-01 Use goggles and ear praotectors! M 020-02 Work with goggles and ear protectors! M 020-03 Do not put goggles and ear protectors down! M 021-01 Use the helmet and ear protectors! M 021-02 Work with the helmet and ear protectors on! M 021-03 Do not take either the helmet or ear protectors off! M 021 Protect head and ears

46 M 024 Use safety belts M 023 Secure gas tanks M 022 Protect the head and eyes M 024-01 Use protective belts! M 024-02 Use safety belts! M 023-01 Secure gas tanks! M 023-02 Secure gas flasks against fall with the metal chain! M 022-01 Use goggles and the helmet! M 022-02 Work with goggles and the helmet on! M 022-03 Do not take goggles and the helmet off!

47 M 027 Smoking area M 026 Wash the hands M 025 For wheelchair users M 027-01 Area for smoking M 027-02 Smoking zone M 027-03 Smoke only in the given place M 027-04 Smoking area. Keep clean. M 026-01 Wash your hands! M 026-02 Wash yourself after finishing work! M 026-03 Wash your hands before and after milking! M 025-01 For wheelchair users! M 028 Directions (Left, Right) M 028-01 Parking place drive M 028-02 Use only the marked road!

48 D OUBLE - COMBINED SIGNS D 304 – Gas main breaker! Do not smoke and do not use an open fire within 1.5 m from the switchboard! D 323 – Watch out, back current! Switch both sides!

49 Triple-combined signs T 320 – Watch out - electrical equipment! Do not extinguish with water and foam extinguishers! Equipment may be operated by only the person responsible T 323 – Watch out – electrical equipment! Do not extinguish with water and foam extinguishers! Switch off in emergency!

50 C HAPTER TWO [P ERSONAL P ROTECTIVE E QUIPMENT ] 50 Q1- Engineering Controls is meaning that …………? Q2-Work Practice Controls is state that ………..? Q3 -How to verify the Engineering Controls? Q4- How to verify the Work Practice Controls? Q5-Give an examples of PPE? Q6- What is some of the causes of eye injuries? Q7-What are some of the causes of head injuries? Q8-mention is classes of Hard Hats? Q9-What is some of the causes of foot injuries? Q10-What is some of the hand injuries you need to guard against? Q11-What is some of the causes of body injuries?

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