3 Methods of controlling airborne contaminants Engineering controls (elimination of the hazard)substitutionIsolationvetilationAdministrative controlsPersonal protective devices
4 Respiratory personal protective devices (respirators) used to protect against inhaled agents or to improve the quality of inhaled airAn effective component of a worker protection programUsed for protection against chemical agents (e.g., asbestos, lead), and biologic agents
5 Use of Respirators not the method of choice for controlling exposures completely dependent on voluntary compliance by the workerrequires an ongoing multifaceted program to ensure proper maintenance and utilization
6 When respirators are needed? when the work is of a varied nature, preventing the construction of adequate engineering controlsduring maintenance and repair operations when ventilation controls are disengaged or nonoperative.when relatively infrequent operations are conducted (e.g., transfers of liquid raw materials).for emergency and unplanned events (e.g., as part of the emergency response to a spill) or when the agent is unknown.when product substitutions or engineering controls are not financially feasible.
7 Different kinds of respirators (a) air-purifying respirators use ambient air and filter or adsorb the contaminants(b) atmosphere-supplyingMost respirators in use are air-purifying respirators.Generally, atmosphere-supplying respirators provide a higher level of protection.
8 Air-purifying respirators decrease contaminant levels by several mechanisms:FiltrationElectrostatic characteristicsSorbent respirators
10 Mechanical-filter respirator For particulates3 kinds:N (Not resistant to oil)R (Resistant to oil)P (oil Proof)efficacy9599100
11 Chemical-cartridge respirator For vapors and gasesCartridge contains chemical to absorb gases and vapors
12 Gas mask Designed for: Full face Organic vapors and gasesAlkaline gasesAcid gasesPesticidesPaint vaporsRadioactive particulatesDustsFumesMistsFull faceUse a canister (sorbent: 2-10 times a cartridge)
13 Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) Used for particulates, gases and vapors
14 Atmosphere -supplying Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)Air line: air via a hoseCombined air line with backup tank
24 Respirator efficacyThe overall efficacy of the respirator is described by protection factor.Protection factor: the ratio of the contaminant concentration outside the mask to the concentration inside the mask.Assigned protection factor (APF)Measured protection factor (MPF)Workplace protection factor (WPF)Usually MPF>APF>WPF
25 Fit Testing and Checking Every time a user dons a respirator, should perform a fit checkTypically for the first timeQualitative and quantitative fit testsQualitative: detection of a tracer material by the subject.Quantitative: concentration of a marker substance inside and outside the mask is measured under laboratory conditions for the specific user.
26 Occupational Respiratory Protection Program Assessment of whether respirators are neededExposure assessmentRespirator selectionMedical assessment of usersTrainingCleaning and maintenanceProgram audit
27 Respirator Selection Two factors inform respirator selection: exposure situation per seworker medical conditionWorker preferences
28 Sequence of activities Should respirators be used at all?What are the exposures of concern?What degree of contaminant reduction is necessary?permissible exposure level (PEL).The ratio of the actual workplace exposure level to the permissible exposure defines the degree of reduction that the respirator must afford.the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA)short-term exposure limits (STEL)
29 What safety factor is necessary? A safety factor of tenfold is addedGreater safety factors are needed with highly toxic agents on unpredictable exposures.single-use disposable respirators have a maximum assigned protection factor of 10 ppmThe fit test may misestimate the actual workplace protection by a factor of ten.Meaningful fit testing for single-use respirators may not feasible since their protection factor is only ten at most.
30 Does the agent have good warning properties? Is there an immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) situation?an atmosphere-supplying rather than an air-purifying respirator is generally required.In particularly hazardous situations, dual protection is necessary to ensure safetya full-face mask with positive pressure mode operation is employed to avoid inward movement of contaminants during inspiration.Does the agent have good warning properties?End-of-service-life indicators (if available) are necessary if air-purifying respirators are employed with agents with poor warning properties.What respirator types are compatible with the work situation?Air-line respirators cannot be used where considerable mobility is necessary.
31 Can the individual worker safely and effectively use the respirator? Will the worker actually use the device when needed?What can be afforded?How do respirators integrate with other protective measures (e.g., protective suits)?Respirator programs must be periodically evaluated and adjusted to be effective in real-life situations.
32 ratio of workplace air concentration to the occupational exposure level (e.g., PEL) defines the minimum degree of protection to be afforded, and greater respiratory protection may be needed occasionally.physical state of an inhaled agentParticle sizegreater degree of respiratory protection for small-size particles (e.g., fumes)For fibers, the dimensions and charge affect uptake and clearanceGreater degrees of respiratory protection for longer duration of exposureThe level of exertionPersonal susceptibility
33 Medical evaluation for respirator use Prior to respirator usePeriodically during useUpon change in health statusWhen respirator use problems are suspected
34 A questionnaire about respiratory and other health conditions, prior to use of respirators Medical examinationIn some circumstances, a limited exercise testIn marginal cases, observation of the worker using the respirator in the workplace or during work simulation may be needed.
35 Periodic evaluation of users is also advisable. For special examinations of selected individuals who have expressed difficulty with respirator use, more intensive assessment of the user is warranted.
44 What are the ten parts of a respirator program? 1. Administrator of the Program2. Medical Evaluation3. Selection of Respiratory Protection-Choose the right respirator to protect from contaminant-consult with EH&S.Respirators must be NIOSH approved.Evaluate workplace exposure, assume IDLH if contaminant is not known.Air purifying respirators cannot be used in IDLH atmospheres.
45 4. TrainingInitial training required with periodic refresher training every year. The training shall encompass the following:Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator;What the limitations areUse of respirator effectively in emergencies, including situations in which the respirator malfunctions;How to inspect, put on and remove, use, check the seals of the respiratorMaintenance and storage proceduresHow to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators
46 5. Fit testing 6. Inspection & care for all tight fitting respirators annually, or if changes occur to facial features, weight gain/loss, eyewear changes, fitcheck fails6. Inspection & careinspect before each usereplace defective parts immediately
47 7. Cleaningafter each use, disassemble and thoroughly clean and disinfect respirator8. Useinspect before using, proper storage, positive/negative fit check before each use,
48 9. ReviewPeriodic audits of the UR Respiratory Protection Program10. Record KeepingMedical certificationsTraining recordsFit test recordsAir monitoring records
50 Types of Fit Tests Qualitative: Quantitative: Test agent directed around the head of the respirator wearerIf user can detect agent, test is failedQuantitative:Test atmosphereQuantifies respirator fit using instrumentation to determine the amount of leakage into the respirator facepiece
51 Qualitative Fit Test Quantitative Fit Test Banana oil Irritant smoke Saccharin challengeBitrex solutionQuantitative Fit TestExpensive machineryFit FactorsOutside to inside concentrationStandard prohibits facial hair which interferes with face - to - facepiece seal or valve function
53 ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR TABLE Powered Air-Purifying Respirators Half MaskAPF=50Hood/HelmetAPF=25/1,0004Full-FaceAPF=1,0004Must be proven to provide APF of 1,000 or be treated as Loose-fitting Facepiece PAPR with APF=25.Loose-fitting FacepieceAPF=25
56 ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR TABLE Continuous Flow Supplied-Air RespiratorsHood/HelmetAPF=25/1,0004Half MaskAPF=50Full FaceAPF=1,0004Must be proven to provide APF of 1,000 or be treated as Loose-fitting Facepiece SAR with APF=25.Loose-fitting Facepiece APF=25
58 ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR TABLE Hooded Demand Self Contained Breathing ApparatusThe demand unit is Draeger’s Air Boss Guardian, which consists of a hood with an inner nose cup with 30 minute air supply. Neck seal forms gas-tight seal.Per NIOSH, fit testing requirements apply.Fit Test adapter, P/n for fit testing with PortacountTM Plus
60 ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTOR TABLE Pressure Demand Self Contained Breathing ApparatusNIOSH certified the tight-fitting hooded Survivair Puma respirator as a pressure-demand SCBA with 30, 45, or 60 min air supply. Has a nosecup.Inappropriate MarketingNIOSH warns that facial hair cannotinterfere with neck or nosecup seal.Fit test adapter for qualitatively fit testing Puma
61 Combination Respirators Not in APF TableWhen using a combination respirator ensure that the APF is appropriate to the mode of operation in which the respirator is being used [paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A)].Full Face PD Airline APF = 1,000Full Face Air-purifying APF = 50Preamble states: “…the combination pressure- demand full facepiece SAR with auxiliary SCBA respirator is equivalent to an SCBA, and, therefore, the APF for an SCBA applies.