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Chapter 10 Violence Against Girls and Women _____________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Violence Against Girls and Women _____________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Violence Against Girls and Women _____________________________

2 Sexual Harassment at School Sexual harassment in an educational setting: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature when Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for decisions about the student (e.g., admission, grades) The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive study environment ____________________________

3 Sexual Harassment at School Elementary and secondary school Reports of student sexual harassment on the rise Incidence Types of harassment Gender differences Experiences of harassment more stressful for girls than for boys ____________________________

4 Sexual Harassment at School The college campus Gender differences in classifying behavior as sexual harassment Controversies in definition Incidence of sexual harassment Difficult to assess Responses to sexual harassment _____________________________

5 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sexual harassment in the workplace: Unwelcome verbal or physical behavior when Submission to or rejection of the behavior forms the basis for work-related decisions (quid pro quo) The behavior creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment (hostile environment) (Morgan & Gruber, 2011) ____________________________

6 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Incidence Commonplace around the globe Most commonly takes form of sexual remarks and jokes (Burn, 2011) ______________________________

7 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Incidence, continued Occupational characteristics related to sexual harassment Male-dominated, blue-collar occupations Military Target characteristics related to sexual harassment Gender Age Marital status Sexual orientation Ethnicity Characteristics of offenders _____________________________

8 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Consequences Psychological consequences Physical consequences Effects of hostile environment Effects of labeling experience as harassment ______________________________

9 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Explanations Sex-role spillover theory: In workplaces with unequal concentrations of men and women, gender is highly salient attribute. In these environments men respond to female employees more as women than as workers (Burn, 2011) Power theory: Sexual harassment is seen as an abuse of power to gain sexual favors or to reinforce the imbalance of power Organizational intolerance _____________________________

10 Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Women’s responses Two category framework (Fitzgerald et al., 2001) Internally focused responses Externally focused responses Most women do not confront perpetrator Differences by ethnicity _____________________________

11 Stalking What is it? Unwanted and repeated actions toward an individual that induce fear or concern for safety Perpetrators, victims, and effects Most stalkers are male Most victims are female Can be psychologically harmful _____________________________

12 Violence against Girls Child sexual abuse: Contact and noncontact sexual experiences in which the victim is below the age of consent and the abuser is significantly older or in a position of power over the child (Barnett et al., 2005) Contact sexual abuse Noncontact sexual abuse Exploitation through the internet Incest: Sexual contact between a child and a close blood relative or other family member ____________________________

13 Violence against Girls Child sexual abuse, continued Incidence Difficult to pinpoint Most sexual abuse committed by family member or family friend at home, more than once Most common incest between daughter and father or stepfather; brother-sister may also be very common (Rathus et al., 2010) Few children tell anyone _____________________________

14 Violence against Girls Child sexual abuse, continued Consequences Can be devastating in short- and long term (Cicchetti, et al., 2010) Gender differences Effects during childhood Effects during adolescence Effects during adulthood ____________________________

15 Violence against Girls Child sexual abuse, continued Treatment Long process Effectiveness of treatment Therapy for children Prevention Programs offered in schools Sex offender notification _____________________________

16 Violence against Girls Infanticide and neglect Result from cultural attitudes that devalue females Missing girls in Asia Human trafficking ___________________________

17 Dating Violence Incidence of dating violence Reports of physical aggression in dating relationship Gender differences Who engages in dating violence? Being the recipient of dating violence (Crooks, et al., 2011) Consequences and warning signals _____________________________

18 Rape Rape: Sexual penetration of any bodily orifice against the victim’s will, obtained by physical force, the threat of force, or while the victim is incapable of giving consent because of mental illness, mental disability, or intoxication (Crooks et al., 2011) Incidence A woman is raped every two minutes in the U.S. (Buddie & Miller, 2001) Challenges in obtaining statistics _____________________________

19 Rape Rape, continued Acquaintance rape: The perpetrator and the victim know each other Incidence Labeling the experience as rape is rare Women downplay negative aspects of experience Women blame themselves Reporting to the police is rare ___________________________

20 Rape Factors associated with acquaintance rape Sexual script: A socialized set of expected behaviors characterized by an aggressive male who initiates and pushes for sexual activity and a gatekeeping female who sets the limits Characteristics of sexually aggressive men Experienced family violence Believe rape myths Characteristics of victims Younger, have a disability, certain ethnic groups, poor and homeless, living in warzones (Abbey et al., 2010) Alcohol consumption _____________________________

21 Rape Effects of rape Profound psychological consequences Physical health consequences Positive life changes following assault can help women cope ____________________________

22 Rape Rape prevention Change attitudes Increase women’s self-protection Change men’s behavior (Ahrens et al., 2008) Develop effective procedures for handling complaints _____________________________

23 Rape Theories of rape Evolutionary theory: Rape evolved as strategy for men to ensure their genes would be passed on Feminist theory: Rape is rooted in the longstanding and pervasive power imbalance between women and men (Bent- Goodley et al., 2011) Social learning theory: Social behaviors, including attitudes supportive of rape and sexually aggressive behaviors, learned through observation and reinforcement (Sigal & Wnuk- Novitskie, 2010) _____________________________

24 Intimate Partner Violence Intimate partner violence, battering, domestic violence: Physical and psychological abuse committed by an intimate partner (spouse, romantic partner, or former spouse or partner) Common couple violence Intimate terrorism _____________________________

25 Intimate Partner Violence Incidence Gender differences Underreported Role of disability, social class, and ethnicity Disability Social class Ethnicity _____________________________

26 Intimate Partner Violence Risk factors Need for power and control Belief that men have right to punish their partners Alcohol and drug abuse Poor communication skills, low self-esteem Occupational, economic, marital stress Observing or experiencing abuse in childhood _______________________________

27 Intimate Partner Violence Effects of intimate partner violence Physical problems Psychological problems Financial consequences Effects on children ______________________________

28 Intimate Partner Violence Leaving the abusive relationship Reasons women don’t leave Economic Accelerated violence Socialization to stay with husband Conservative religious beliefs Fear of deportation, discrimination _____________________________

29 Intimate Partner Violence Theories of intimate partner violence Feminist theory Social learning theory _____________________________

30 Intimate Partner Violence Interventions Laws Shelters and transitional housing programs Treatment for women’s psychological trauma Treatment for batterers _____________________________

31 Elder Abuse Types of abuse Physical Psychological Financial Neglectful Who is abused and who abuses? What can be done? ______________________________

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