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Rape Chapter 7. Introduction Sex offenders elicit a great deal of public apprehension & fear Most criminal acts are violent, involving rape and use of.

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Presentation on theme: "Rape Chapter 7. Introduction Sex offenders elicit a great deal of public apprehension & fear Most criminal acts are violent, involving rape and use of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rape Chapter 7

2 Introduction Sex offenders elicit a great deal of public apprehension & fear Most criminal acts are violent, involving rape and use of force  Public’s abhorrence toward SO is compounded by fact victims are mostly women & children

3 Rape Myths Sexual assault is not a common problem Sexual assault is most often committed by strangers Women “ask for it” by the way they dress Avoid being alone in dark, deserted places Women derive pleasure from being a victim Women lie about sexual assault Only women can be raped

4 Contemporary studies show Sexual assault is pervasive Most of its perpetrators are not “abnormal” Many victims know their attackers before the attack Many victims suffer greatly, both physically and emotionally for a long time Terrifying, dangerous & embarrassing experience

5 By Definition Sex offender  More of a legal and correctional designation  Refers to an individual who has been convicted of a sexual offence

6 By Definition: RAPE Any NONCONSENSUAL sexual act by either a male or female person to either a male or female persons, regardless of the relationship between people involved Sexual assault redefined into 3 levels (1983 )  Sexual assault (Level I - max 10 years) Threat or use of force in the execution of a sexual act  Sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm (Level II – max 14 years)  Aggravated sexual assault (Level III - max life) Differs from sexual assault in terms of seriousness of the harm done to victim

7 Incidence of Sexual Assault 23,000 sexual assaults reported in 2005 (Stats Can, 2006)  Vast majority of offences level I  Offenders admit to many victims  Negative psychological and physical consequences  Lowest reporting rates of any type of crime

8 Attrition Rate Decision to report Investigative stage Discontinuance by prosecutors Trial

9 Factors That Influence the Process?  Younger victims more likely to withdraw statements  Victim/offender relationship  Know well; don’t wish to cause any harm, retaliation  Embarrassment, guilt, shame  Publicity  Callous treatment by police, medical personnel, courts  Assume responsibility for own victimization

10 Victim Characteristics Young women & girls highest risk o 11 to 19 years old (UCR) o 15 to 24 years old (GSS) o Single, separated or divorced, lower SES, residing in urban areas, out in the evening Males aged 3 to 14

11 Victim-Offender Relationship  Stranger Rape  Rarer than thought or reported more?  More violent (knives, guns, ropes; verbal violence)  Acquaintance Rape  Intimate partner, ex-partner, colleague, friend, family member………  Most victims know their assailants

12 Assailant Characteristics No single profile Male 99% younger males (18 to 34) Previous contact with system High recidivism rate for offenses in general Can be victims themselves Blue collar or unemployed Pre-meditate the crime (usually)

13 Offence Characteristics Spatial patterns o Not too far from home Location of offence o Most occur in a residence (Level I assault) o Car, place of work o Public & open areas (Level II assault) o Bars, streets, public buildings

14 Theories of Rape Biological models (can’t help themselves) Evolutionary models (genetic driver) Environmental models (cues & influences) o Feminist models (all men are potential rapists) o Rape myths Developmental models o Inadequate bonding

15 Classification of Sexual Offenders Previously classified by motivations to rape Power rapes, anger rapes, sadistic rapes (Groth) Opportunistic, pervasive anger, sexual & vindictiveness (MTC:R3) Analysis of physical, verbal & sexual actions (FBI) Divided into categories based on type of sexually deviant behaviour, relationship between victim & offender, age of victim (themes & role of victims)  Useful for clinical applications (profiles, prison & probation programs, interventions

16 Etiology (causes & origins) Neither simple nor straightforward A perpetrator may sexually offend for a variety of reasons  Gratification of deviant sexual arousal  Sexual socialization  Immaturity hypothesis (intellectual limitation)  Attitudes and beliefs support male dominance  Association of aggression and violence with sexual arousal (punishment, fear, retribution)

17 Etiology cont’d Not much research support for uncontrollable urges, mental illness, drug or victim attribution

18 Utility of Behavioural Classification Systems Academic utility  Frameworks Practical utility  Objective framework for investigations Limitations  Rely on crimes reported  Reveal little about offender’s cognitive process

19 Summary Antisocial pathway is an important precursor of sexual offending Sexual offending influenced by multiple, interactive factors  Past learning experiences  Cognitive expectations and beliefs  Conditioning  Environmental stimuli  Reinforcement contingencies

20 Impact on Victims Serious and negative psychological, emotional, and physical consequences  High levels of fear and stress that disrupts social, sexual, and occupational functioning  High levels of anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, difficulties in concentration, PTSD  Child victims develop a wide range of short- and long-term problems Substance abuse, depression, eating disorders, acting out

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