MODALS (obligation and request)
MODALS Modals are auxilary verbs.
Use simple modals (modal+base form) for the present and future. Use perfect modals (modal+ have+ past participle) to show degrees of necessity in the past.
OBLIGATION PRESENT MUST HAVE TO HAVE GOT TO PAST HAD TO
PRESENT MUST HAVE TO HAVE GOT TO
Use must formally to show very strong obligation that can’t be escaped HAVE TO Use have to in all forms and situations, formal and informal. HAVE GOT TO Use have got to informally in conversations. It is rarely used in the negative. Use don’t have to instead.
PAST HAD TO Use had to to show past necessity
BE CAREFUL! Don’t use must have + past participle to show past necessity
NEGATİVE FORMS BUT, Must and have to have similar meanings
Must not and don’t have to have very different meanings.
We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary.
We use must not to say that it is necessary not to do something ( that it is prohibited ). You must not smoke here. We use don’t/doesn’t have to to say that something is not necessary. You don’t have to eat everything offered to you In the past, we use didn’t have to+ base form to show that something was not necessary. You didn’t have to bring a gift.
REQUEST MAY CAN WİLL COULD MİGHT WOULD DO YOU MİND … WOULD YOU MİND …
We use these modals to say our demands politely.
We use generally these modals as simple modals (modal + base form) for the present and future.
MIGHT MAY CAN COULD WİLL WOULD
Might I leave a little early today? I have got an appoinment. COULD Could you bring some water, please? WOULD Would you buy a pocket of butter for us, please? MAY May I go out with my friends tonight, mum? CAN Can I use your printer? I don’t have one. WİLL Will you please pass that dictionary over here?
DO YOU MİND … WOULD YOU MİND… Would you mind turning off the heater?
Dou you mind turning off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?) Do you mind if I turn off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?) WOULD YOU MİND… Would you mind turning off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmanızın sakıncası var mı?) Would you mind if I turn off the heater? (ısıtıcıyı kapatmamın sakıncası var mı?)
E.PINAR KARAHAN ELT 1
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