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Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance

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Presentation on theme: "Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance

2 OFDA’s Response Criteria
1. Host country must ask for, or be willing to accept, USG assistance. 2. The disaster is of such magnitude that it is beyond the host country’s ability to respond adequately. 3. It is in the interest of the USG to provide assistance. IF THESE 3 CRITERIA ARE MET: The U.S. Ambassador issues a Disaster Declaration in SUPPORT of the host nation.

3 USAID/OFDA’s Role in a Disaster Response
USAID/OFDA is the USG lead for organizing and managing foreign disaster assistance Develops overall response strategy Provides on-scene management in support of U.S. Ambassador Provides USG funding to implementing partners Collects and analyzes information on the response Primary reporting source for the total USG response When necessary, USAID/OFDA requests support from other USG agencies (including DoD) in HA/DR. Say: What do we mean when we say we are the lead? This is our main focus after a disaster response. There are many ways OFDA acts as LFA, not least of which is coordinating an operational response, providing fast and flexible funding to organizations able to carry out relief work, providing assessments of humanitarian needs and gaps, and reporting on total USG activities in support of the disaster response. Review bullets Reference that a Department of State cable noted that OFDA is “responsible for USG disaster assistance and coordinating USG response” and the Secretary of Defense has supported this definition of OFDA’s role. OFDA pulls in assistance from other USG agencies, including DOD, when it is needed during a response. NOTE: OFDA has day-to-day operations in Washington, D.C. and regional offices, working with NGO partners, planning mitigation activities, and providing assistance to longer-term disaster, chronic issues, and complex emergencies. 3

4 Humanitarian Commodities Personnel: Regional Advisors
OFDA Response Options Most Common Funding: $ 50,000 Funding: Grants Humanitarian Commodities Personnel: Regional Advisors Personnel: Assessment Team Personnel: Disaster Assistance Response Team Personnel: RMT - Response Management Team (DC) Any Combination of Above Recommend nothing Most Common Large Events 4

OFDA At Work: Global Presence USAID / OFDA HQ This is a visual display of the OFDA resources I have mentioned. Click. The office is actually only about 350 people worldwide (including approximately 235 core staff and 115+ institutional contractors who provide support for humanitarian reporting, IT, grants, admin, etc.). OFDA COCOM Advisor Regional Office TOTAL OFDA PERSONNEL = ~ 350 Stockpiles U.N. Rep Humanitarian Advisor

6 Miami (30,000 sq ft) Pisa (50,000 sq ft) Dubai (38,000 sq ft)
Plastic Sheeting Blankets Collapsible Water Jugs Water storage bladders Hygiene Kits Water treatment trailers Rubber boats Kitchen sets Pisa (50,000 sq ft) Plastic Sheeting Blankets Collapsible Water Jugs Water storage bladders Hygiene Kits Water treatment trailers Dubai (38,000 sq ft) Plastic Sheeting Blankets Collapsible Water Jugs Hygiene Kits Water storage bladders Water treatment trailers Rubber boats Armored Vehicles OFDA pre-positions stockpiles in warehouses around the world so we can get them on-site as fast as possible. We keep about enough commodities for 100,000 beneficiaries in each warehouse. Stockpiles are located in: Miami, The United Arab Emirates, Italy (Pisa - in the Camp Darby Leghorn Army Depot, which also houses State Dept. stocks) Our warehouse in Miami primarily supports the Americas. Because of local noise restrictions that make the warehouse less flexible (loud planes such as Antonov and Ilyushin are restricted so we have to often truck commodities to Milan for subsequent flight), the warehouse on Camp Darby Army Garrison in Pisa, Italy is often used as a restocking warehouse. Dubai has become our main hub because of the quick response capability and availability of planes; it also has the most volume of all of our warehouses. Vehicles are the only items in our stockpiles that are considered reusable—every other item is a “consumable” and will stay in country. 6

7 DOD and USAID Coordination During Disaster Response

8 OSD Guidance: DOD Mission in Foreign Disaster Relief
The U.S. military is not instrument of first resort humanitarian response but supports civilian relief agencies The U.S. military may be involved when: The military provides a unique service Civilian response capacity is overwhelmed Civilian authorities request assistance When the U.S. military does become involved: The military mission should be clearly defined The risks should be minimal Core DOD missions should not be affected This is another slide from OSD-Policy. This slide points out the criteria that should be met before DoD assets are used in disaster relief operations; unique capabilities, civilians are overwhelmed, and assistance has been requested. Also note that when DoD becomes involved there needs to be a clear mission, at minimal risk, and not affecting the military’s day job. It is important to remember that USAID is the lead for the U.S. Government in responding to humanitarian crises abroad. The established criteria (listed above) are used to determine when and to what extent the military will be used in a disaster relief operation Those criteria include, 1) instances when a foreign government requests US assistance, 2) when there is no civilian alternative (civilian capabilities have been overwhelmed), 3) and when a unique military capability is required to provide some assistance. --- Further, the Department requires that USAID validate the requirement for military assistance (it is uniquely suited to do this, determinations re: use of the military are based on in-country assessments, Although not legally obligated to do so, DOD’s disaster response policy is consistent with the U.N.’s “Oslo Guidelines Note: If OSD is presenting at the JHOC this slide can be hidden. 8

9 Validating the Mission
USAID/OFDA generates or receives request for DoD support from humanitarian partner consignees (NGO, U.N. cluster, etc.) USAID/OFDA, with USG country team, validates and prioritizes requests Validated requests forwarded to DoD for review and execution Say: OK, let’s assume that we are working in a disaster where DOD is providing transportation assets. We have the appropriate DoD assets, now we want to be able to move the right stuff. This is where the OFDA liaisons work closely with their DoD counterparts in the JTF. OFDA identifies what our implementing partners have to move (third party goods), validates the need, and works with the JTF to establish the Request for Assistance “RFA” process. 9 9

10 Requesting DOD Support
Exception: COCOM can respond immediately to save lives if assets on hand (72 hr limit) If req’d, HN requests assistance from international community (other nations, NGOs, IOs, regional response mechanisms, etc.) For USG response, US Ambassador or COM validates emergency HN requests/will accept USG aid HN overwhelmed In interest of USG If req’d, State or USAID requests DOD support and may provide $$$ (Via EXECSEC Memo request or letter/ interagency agreement) AMB/COM issues disaster declaration cable DOD approves HA/DR Joint Staff tasks COCOM (CJCS EXORD) HN Responds This slide represents the process for requesting DoD assistance. Starting in the lower left corner, a disaster occurs somewhere in the region and the HN responds. Most of the time that’s the end of the story—the HN can take care of itself. (click) However, if required the HN can request assistance from the international community... (click) For USG response, the US COM (Ambassador) validates the emergency. To do this, 3 requirements must be met... (click) Once these requirements are met, the COM issues a disaster declaration cable (what DOD calls a message) which specifies the # of people affected, the immediate needs, and the desired response. (click) Then OFDA responds as the lead federal agency. (click) However, if required, State Department or USAID can request DOD assistance. This is often done via a formal Executive Secretariat (EXECSEC) memo from DOS to DOD. The other request method is a letter of request from the USAID/OFDA Director to DOD, which is backed by an interagency agreement. This is often used when OFDA intends to reimburse DOD for services. Any request for DOD support can be on a reimbursable or non-reimbursable (DOD pays) basis. (click) Next DOD approves the HA/DR if justified. The Ass’t SECDEF for Special Ops & Low Intensity Conflict (ASD/SOLIC) & the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) are responsible for HA/DR issues within OSD and have oversight of the OHDACA account. DOD approval is required even when OFDA provides funding. (click) Once DSCA finalizes logistical and financial details in coordination with OFDA, SOUTHCOM, etc., Joint Staff would then task the COCOM to execute via CJCS EXORD... (click) ...and the COCOM would respond in support of USAID/OFDA. The exception to this is when the COCOM can respond “when lives are in immediate danger and the command is in a position to render timely life-saving assistance”. OSD approval is required to continue lifesaving efforts beyond 72 hours. This is often called the “72 hr rule” and there’s a misconception that this means DOD can do whatever we want for that period. This isn’t the case as the policy also specifies the command “will follow up ASAP, but not later than 72 hrs, to secure OSD approval for continuing its assistance.” As one example, In SOUTHCOM, the “72 hr rule” is sometimes the norm rather than the exception because of JTF-Bravo. JTF-B at Soto Cano AB, Honduras is positioned with the right resources to provide timely lifesaving assistance in CENTAM. USAID/OFDA responds as LFA COCOM responds in support of USAID/OFDA Disaster Occurs 10 10

11 OFDA Military Liaison Team
Military Liaison Team (MLT) Based in Washington, DC OFDA Advisors at Geographic Combatant Commands SOUTHCOM PACOM EUCOM AFRICOM CENTCOM MLT surge staff Civ-Mil Advisors on DART or OFDA Field Offices Joint Humanitarian Operations Course (JHOC)

12 Role of OFDA Civil Military Advisor
Provide input to military planning --- all phases, all levels, all orders (responses and exercises) Recommend appropriate uses of military assets Screen, validate, and prioritize requests for military support coming from UN/NGOs/IOs as well as other parts of DoD Act as intermediary between the military and the UN/NGOs/IOs TEACHING POINTS: The roles of the OFDA liaison 12

13 What is the Mission? Wholesale vs. Retail Large capacity airlift
Airfield and port management Off-loading and trans-loading Moving supplies and people Helicopter and air support Engineering assessments Security Here is what we call the “Wholesale” side of a relief operation: DoD has a unique capacity and capability to assist during disaster relief when local and international assets can not meet the requirements. How does this align with the UN’s hierarchy of tasks (direct/indirect/infrastructure)? Elicit answers. Yes, these would be indirect assistance or infrastructure support. 13

14 What is the Mission? Wholesale Vs. Retail
Food/commodities distribution Camp management Health/water and sanitation programs Processing/ screening/tracing of displaced persons Vaccinations 14

(When someone wants assistance from the US Military) USG Organization or Implementing Partner (UN, NGO, etc.) Other Donors, UN Agency, or NGO not directly funded by the USG Host Nation Civilian Organizations Host Nation Military Requests of an HA Nature Submit a RFA (USAID/OFDA or UN Form) Requests purely Mil-Mil in nature USAID/OFDA Response Team in-country Executes Mission, then reports back to USAID/OFDA Now, what is the process for the creation of the MITAM? Walk through the steps. OFDA collects RFAs from all the relevant partners, then prioritizes and validates the requests, then transmits them to DOD (the JTF) via the MITAM. Importantly, the process does not end there. The JTF must report on the status of the MITAM requests back to OFDA. Sometimes the JTF will reject a MITAM (if it falls outside of their mandate, etc). Note: Usually when the MITAM is used, DOD already has funding and authorities in place. Prioritizes and Validates RFAs Informs USAID/OFDA of the Execution Plan, then DIRLAUTH with the Requestor Daily MITAM issued by USAID/OFDA US Military HQ in-country

16 USG Civ-Mil in the Pacific
Use of US military assets for relief operations in the Pacific has been infrequent due to proximity. In the event of a rapid onset disaster, DoD can exercise 72hr Life & Limb Authority (During Exercises and Patrols) Due to the increased focus on the Pacific, there will be a more sustained presence of DoD assets that can be utilized during major relief operations. Outside of major responses, increased presence of DoD engagements in HADR during port visits and joint excercises. (Mil-Mil) 16

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