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New Technologies - Tires -

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1 New Technologies - Tires -
Paul Johnston Michelin North America Greenville, SC

2 What is accelerating the adoption of New Technologies?
New Technology - Tires What is accelerating the adoption of New Technologies? Fuel Costs Freight Efficiencies Environmental Concerns Regulatory & Legislative Landscape Fuel has increased ____ fold over 2010 For every $1 spent on tires, $15 spent on fuel Do more with less, haul more freight with fewer trucks, drivers, miles driven; increased adoption of telematics, routing s/w Pressures on the industry to meet more stringent yet beneficial regulations ranging from CSA, to fuel mileage, to emissions, to braking distances to EOBRs/HOS

3 New Generation Wide Base Single

4 It is tire replacing duals

5 Moving from 18 10 Wheels on the Ground

6 Super Single vs NGWBS New Generation Traditional Wide Base Single
They say a picture is worth a thousand words – On the left the 425/65R22.5…………..speed rated 65 mph; on-off road compounding, high RR – On the right the 445/50R22.5…………speed rated 75 mph; multi application (LH, Reg, On-Off, Urban), lower RR If the old wide base was a work boot; the new X One® tire is more like a sneaker. New Generation Wide Base Single 445/50R22.5 Traditional “Super Single” 425/65R22.5

7 How do the footprints compare?
NGWBS 445/50R22.5 Duals 275/80R22.5 X One® Tire Chains/Cables _______________________________________________________________ Security Chain Company 16131 SE Harvard Clackamas, OR Phone: Internet: Product: Name: ZT MSPN: 72829 Scantrack Chain for 445/50R22.5 and 455/55R22.5 Dealer: White Mountain chain Bonners Ferry, ID Contact: Ed Leach Phone: Traditional “Super Single” 445/65R22.5

8 What Benefits does the NGWBS provide?
Cost Reduction Improved fuel efficiency, approximately 4% - 10% Freight Efficiencies Greater payload, savings of 175 – 200 lbs / axle Fewer trucks on the road Ease of maintenance Reduced Carbon Footprint Better fuel mileage (lower Rolling Resistance)….. …….fewer Greenhouse Gas emissions …resulting in a more competitive Transport Industry!

9 Fuel Savings

10 Where Does Your Fuel Go? Aerodynamic Drag Mechanical Losses
At 60 mph, aerodynamic drag consumes approximately 40% of the fuel. Aerodynamic Drag Mechanical losses consume approximately 25% of the fuel. Mechanical Losses Rolling resistance accounts for approximately 35% of the fuel consumed. Rolling Resistance Aerodynamic drag is the natural resistance of the air being pushed by the truck. Aerodynamic drag is a function of the vehicle frontal square footage, the aerodynamic shape of its leading edge and the square of its speed. At 60 mph, aerodynamic drag consumes approximately 40% of the fuel. Mechanical losses are related to the engine’s ability to convert part of the fuel energy, the friction associated with the various drive train components and the various accessories being run. Mechanical losses consume approximately 25% of the fuel. Rolling resistance is related to the heat generated by the tire’s sidewalls and tread design as they flex and squirm. This natural characteristic of rubber to generate heat while flexing is called hysteresis. Rolling resistance accounts for approximately 35% of the fuel consumed. Hysteresis is the natural characteristic of rubber to release only part of the energy that it consumes to deform. The best way to show this is with a rubber band. If you test the temperature of a rubber band by putting up against your lip and then stretch it couple of times, and then check the temperature again, you will notice that it got warm. It retained energy. The tread design of a tire does the same thing as it compresses and releases.

11 What does a Department of Energy (DOE) Study show?
Improvements in Fuel Economy with Various Combinations of Tires on Class 8 Tractor Trailers Benefit using only wide singles 9.2% => approx $1.1m fuel savings for a Fleet of 175 power units ($6,539 per tractor) Benefit vs duals only The NGWBS tire has only two sidewalls flexing instead of four. The NGWBS tire uses advanced technology compounds. The NGWBS tire can reduce the truck rolling resistance by more than 12% compared to our most fuel efficient dual. Fact #537: September 22, 2008 NGWBS on Class 8 Tractor Trailers Improves Fuel Economy by 9.2% Oak Ridge Lab; 750,000 real-world miles; 1 year test

12 Freight Efficiencies

13 How does the NGWBS Tire Allow for Greater Payload?

14 How the NGWBS Tire Saves 175+ lbs per Axle
WEIGHT SAVINGS EXAMPLES DUALS NGWBS (Aluminum Wheels) (Aluminum Wheels) Tire/Wheel x Qty. Tire/Wheel x Qty. Steer 170 x 2 = x 2 = 320 Drive 175 x 8 = 1, x 4 = 992 Trailer 149 x 8 = 1, x 4 = 916 Total 2,932 lbs. vs 2,228 lbs. 704 Pounds Savings DUALS NGWBS (Steel Wheels) (Aluminum Wheels) Tire/Wheel x Qty. Tire/Wheel x Qty. Steer 195 x 2 = x 2 = 320 Drive 200 x 8 = 1, x 4 = 992 Trailer 174 x 8 = 1, x 4 = 916 Total 3,382 lbs. vs 2,228 lbs. 1,154 Pounds Savings an extra 100 – 165 gallons fuel for bulk hauler…. Efficiencies gained: 176 lbs alum to alum; 288 lbs steel to alum Dual tire = 120 lbs, dual wheel = 50 lbs NGWBS tire = 180 lbs, NGWBS wheel = 70 lbs This chart shows weight saving comparing aluminum wheels to aluminum wheels. Weight savings realized by switching from steel to aluminum can almost double the weight saving. Reference Duals – G305 Fuel Max, G372, G316 Fuel Max X Ones – XZA3, XOne XDA, XOne XTA

15 Environmental Impact

16 How the New Generation Wide Base Tire Saves Oil
Dual Tire 12 Gal Wide Base 15 Gal Dual Tire 12 Gal

17 SmartWay EPA Bulletin: Single Wide Tires

18 MICHELIN® X One® Tires Since its introduction in 2000, MICHELIN® X One® tires have helped save 63 million gallons of fuel, and 639,000 metric tons of CO2 emissions the equivalent of removing 127,800 cars from the road

19 Regulatory & Legislative Environment

20 INDUSTRY NEWS Legislative Changes
Energy Independence & Security Act 2007 CARB impact Clean Air Act 2010 Presidential directive for Fuel Efficiency & GHG standards Government Regulations & Environment The Environmental Protection Agency and DOT’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have published their formal fuel efficiency and emission standards for heavy duty trucks on the Federal Register. Comments must be received before or on January 31, 2011. The EPA’s greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act begin in model year 2014. The NHTSA’s fuel consumption standards under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 would be voluntary for model years 2014 and 2105 and become mandatory in model year 2016 for most regulatory categories. Comments must be identified by Docket ID No. NHTSA–2010–0079 and/or EPA–HQ–OAR–2010–0162, by one of the following methods: • Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. • Fax: NHTSA: (202) 493–2251; EPA: (202) 566–9744. • Mail: NHTSA: Docket Management Facility, M–30, U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building, Ground Floor, Rm. W12–140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC ======================================================================================== The NHTSA’s (Natl Highway Traffic Safety Administration) fuel consumption standards under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 would be voluntary for model years 2014 and 2105 and become mandatory in model year 2016 for most regulatory categories. 1st ever national standards for Fuel Economy & Greenhouse Gas emissions for Med & Heavy Duty trucking. Instead of MPG, trucks to be measured in Gallons per Ton Mile (gal/ton mile) and emissions to be measured in Grams of Carbon Dioxide per Ton Mile (gCO2/ton mile). This accounts for what type of work the truck is doing and not just engine fuel efficiency. Improvements to be met through Engines, Tires, Aerodynamics and Idling , saves 500 million barrels of oil and 250 millionmetric tons of GHG emissions. NHTSA = mpg; EPA = emissions Payback 2-4 years depending on usage. Vocational and OTR power units but not trailers at this time.

21 EPA / NHTSA Joint NPRM GHG Emissions & FE Standards Medium and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles
EPA GHG emissions standards Implementation  MY 2014 NHTSA fuel efficiency standards Implementation MY 2014  voluntary compliance with credits available. MY 2016  mandatory compliance to “average“. Metrics Vehicle Class CO2 Fuel Efficiency Class 2b Pickups, vans grams/mile gallons/100-mile Class 3 – 8 Work, vocational, tractors grams/ton-mile gallons/1,000 ton-mile

22 Each standard will be assigned a CO2 emission target
Figures are for illustration only EXAMPLE: Raised Roof Sleeper w/Trailer NGWBS impact 2010 Baseline = 100 gCO2/ton-mile Below are the ONLY credit options to meet Standards : Aerodynamic features with lower Cd 7 gCO2/ton-mile Regardless of application every truck built that is a raised roof sleeper must be measured against the standard provided. OEM is responsible and accountable to ensure the average of all the trucks sold in that standard are at or below the standard. Low RR tires (lower drive and steer Crr) 5 gCO2/ton-mile Idle reduction timer (shuts down after 5 min) 5 gCO2/ton-mile Reduced weight (wide single tires) 3 gCO2/ton-mile New 2014 standard target = 80 gCO2/ton-mile Note: Default engine to be used; Engine per OEM measured separately source: Volvo Mack 2010 ATA Panel 22

23 What does Industry want?
…. uniformity & harmonization….

24 U.S. States - NGWBS LCV Oversize/Overweight Permitted Operations Only (GVW > 36,364 kg / 80,000 lbs) US permit-issued operation (O/S, O/W, LCV) “... each axle (non-steering) must have 4 tires ...” South Dakota, New York, “... two tires at each end of each axle ...” Kansas, “... minimum axle width ...” California Limitation of 500 lpi (pounds per inch tire width) Montana, Nevada, S.Dakota, Washington, Utah (500 lbs LCV) Industry Standards & Government Regulations (Modified 6/13/11 – SL) IS&GR Overview Section

25 U.S. States - NGWBS LCV Oversize/Overweight Permitted Operations Only (GVW > 36,364 kg / 80,000 lbs) Alaska DC Hawaii Forms of State restrictions CA - specific minimum axle width TX - 2 axle 35’ – 45’ bus LA - rear axles of waste disposal trucks (Modified 6/13/11 – SL) Industry Standards & Government Regulations

26 What About Effect on the Roads?
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1 3 5 7 9 Tread No. Contact Pressure (kPa) X One Tire Dual Tire1 Dual Tire2 This slide illustrates the ground contact pressure exerted by an X One versus dual LP22.5. Note that the contact pressure at the center is essentially equal and that it is in fact much more equally distributed across the X Ones when compared with duals. The image does not suggest pavement rutting from the X ones as does the duals. The lower pressure in the shoulder area of the dual tires equates to a loss of grip at the tread edges (shoulders) relative to the X One. The more balanced distribution of the X One translates into traction and handling improvements as a function of ground contact The literature on pavement damage is exhaustive in scope and very often contradictory in its findings, driven largely by inconsistencies in methodologies and data collection. Most of the existing data comparing wide base singles to duals refers to the older traditional wide base or “super single” tires commonly found on the front axles of vocational vehicles in the US. Study on the new generation of wide base singles is relatively new and very limited. Source: Dr. Al-Qadi / VaTech Transportation Institute

27 Regulatory Environment - Pavement
Tire Contact Stresses kPa signifies kilopascals, i.e. thousands of pascals. 1 kPa = 1000 Pa Pascals are the unit of pressure (atmospheric pressure for instance) equivalent to one newton per square meter. Anytime you see a k in the context of metric it means 10^3 or Pa = pascals or N / m^2, (force / area), a unit of stress or pressure (they mean the same thing, stress is used when referring to solids, pressure is used when referring to fluids). So 1 kPa = 1000 Pa = 1000 n / m^2 Read more: Actual Tire Imprints Contact Stress between the Tire and Pavement Surface Measurements indicate comparable levels of contact stresses between NGWBS and duals. Slide to be used only with written permission of Michelin Americas Research Company Source: Florida DOT

28 Summary: Benefits provided by the NGWBS
Cost Reduction Freight Efficiencies Reduced Carbon Footprint Industry Position: new generation wide base single Net Positive Economic/Environmental Gain when balancing the pro’s v con’s

29 …..the New Generation Wide Base Single tire is the future of tire technology….. Today!

30 Thank You ! June 17th 1mth sold; as of this month, we’ve reached 1.1m+; monthly 20k so next million will hit us in next 3 years, 2013 “the first million is always toughest”, per Marc Laferriere further evidence of industry acceptance….next 1m in 3.5 years

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