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Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط.

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Presentation on theme: "Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط

2 Conjunctions are words which are use to connect words or clauses
together in a sentence. You can use conjunction to link words, phrases And clauses , as in the following example : الروابط هي كلمات تستخدم لربط الكلمات أو العبارات في الجملة . ويمكن استخدام الرابط لربط كلمتين أو شبه جملة و أخرى أو عبارتين ، كما في الأمثلة التالية : * I ate the pizza and the pasta . * Call the movers when you are ready . Conjunctions are divided into three parts types according to the Complexity of the conjunction . تنقسم الروابط إلى ثلاث أنواع حسب تشابك الرابط في الجملة.

3 أمثلة الروابط التنسيقية Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunction are used to join individual words, phrases, and Independent clauses. Coordinating conjunctions are ( and, but , or , nor, for , so , yet ) تستخدم الحروف التنسيقية لربط الكلمات و أشباه الجمل والعبارات المفردة . أمثلة * I asked Ahmed to give me the pen and the book . * He can speak English , but I don’t know English. *You can go by bus , or you can walk .

4 أمثلة الروابط التابعة Subordinating conjunction
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause (s) and the dependent clause (s) . الرابط التابع يعرف العبارة التابعة و يوضح طبيعة العلاقة بين العبارة التابعة والعبارة الأساسية في الجملة. ( after , although , as , because , before , how , if , since , than , that , though, Till , until , while , when , where , whether ) . أمثلة * After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent . * If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. *Ali had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. * As soon as I arrive in Cairo I visited Ahmed . * Although they have two children , they want to get more babies . لاحظ أن في هذا النوع من الروابط لا يمكن وضع الرابط في عبارة بمفرده حيث أنه تابعة فتكون غير مكتملة و تحتاج إلى عبارة أساسية لإكمالها .

5 اليك بعض الروابط و استخداماتها في الجمل :
* كلا من و Both ….. and ….. Both Ali and Ahmed are good friends . لا ولا Neither ….. nor …… Neither Ahmed nor Ali has speaks English . لاحظ أنه مع الرابط ( neither .. nor ) يأتي الفعل في المفرد . * ليس فقط ولكن Not only …. but also He not only has gone to the cinema , but also he has gone to the club. لاحظ عندما تأتي not only في بداية الجملة يأتي بعدها الفعل المساعد للفعل في الزمن المستخدم . Not only did he go to the library , But he also read an essay for Milton. * و أيضا ، وكذلك ، مثل As well as My father is interested in music, as well as my uncle . My father , as well as my uncle , interested in music .

6 ِ*Although he is a successful businessman, he has lost his money .
* على الرغم من Though , although *Though he is very good in English , he doesn’t get the full marks in the test. *Although Ali is an Egyptian, he lives in America all the time . * على الرغم من However +adjective / adverb *However slowly he drives , he arrives work in time . *However beautiful she is , she has not married yet . *However hard the exam is, Ali has got the full marks. لاحظ أن However و although لهما نفس المعنى و لكن الأولى يأتي بعدها الفاعل ثم الفعل ، أما الثانية يأتي بعدها الصفة أو الحال يتبعه الفاعل ثم الفعل لاحظ المثال التالي: ِ*Although he is a successful businessman, he has lost his money . *However successful he is , he has lost his money .

7 * بالرغم من ... Despite , in spite of …
* و بالتالي .. لذلك Thus , so , therefore , as a result , consequently * Ali studies hard, so he gets high marks every exam. * He ate bad meat, therefore he fell ill . * He speaks English fluently, so he was employed in a big company. * بالرغم من Despite , in spite of … * Despite his success, he didn’t get high marks . * In spite of his great strength , he couldn’t open gate . * In spite of feeling tired , we decided to get out. * Nuclear power stations are built despite widespread opposition.

8 * لا ........ و لا ..... Either ….. or * عندمــــــا When
* Either Ali or Ahmed is speaks English well . لاحظ أن الفعل يأتي مع هذا الضمير في حالة المفرد * عندمــــــا When * He went to the cinema, when the accident occurred . * بينمـــــا While , as *While I was walking home, I met my father and his friend. * As I was studying my lessons, some one turned of the lamp.

9 * قبــل Before * بعـــد ، بمجرد أن .. After , as soon as
* Before I went to school , I had had breakfast . * Ali had slept well before he went to work . لاحظ أن العبارة التابعة التي تأتي بعد كلمة before تكون في زمن الماضي البسيط و يأتي فعل العبارة التالية في زمن الماضي التام ، أي أن الفعل الذي يحدث أولا يكون في الماضي التام و الذي يليه يكون في زمن الماضي البسيط. * بعـــد ، بمجرد أن After , as soon as * After I had finished my study in the university, I went to France. * I went to the cinema after I had finished my homework. * As soon as he had arrived at the airport , we invited him for dinner. لاحظ أن الرابط after يأتي بعده الفعل في زمن الماضي التام و فعل العبارة التالية في زمن الماضي البسيط. أذا كانت الروابط when , before , after , as soon as يأتي بعدها الفعل في زمن المضارع البسيط ثم يأتي فعل العبارة التالية في زمن المستقبل: We will look for a taxi as soon as the train arrives.

10 * حتــــى Until , till * We did not have lunch until he had come . * We will not have lunch till they come . لاحظ أن الزمن يختلف مع until * لم يكد حتى No sooner .. Than , hardly.. when , scarcely .. When * He had no sooner finished his study, than he traveled to France. * No sooner had I walked in the door than the phone rang. * She had hardly arrived when she started talking about leaving. * Hardly had the men started training when they were sent to battle. *She had scarcely arrived at the station , when the train cam لاحظ الكلمات السابقة جميعا عبارتين أحدهما في الماضي البسيط والثانية في المضي التام لاحظ عند بدء الجملة بالفاعل مع الروابط السابقة فاننا نضعها بين الفعل الأساسي و الفعل المسا عد للعبارة التي في زمن الماضي التام ز. وعندما نبدأ بها الجملة يأتي بعدها الفعل المساعد ثم الفاعل ثم الفعل ، وبعد ذلك نضع تكملة الرابط when أو than

11 * خشية أن Lest , for fear that
* لكـــي So that * She works hard in her study so that she could get high marks. * Ali travelled to England so that he might resume his studies in biology. * خشية أن Lest , for fear that * She wore heavy clothes for fear that she might catch cold . * He works very hard lest he would miss his position. * سواء أم لم Whether … or not * Whether they come with or not, we will go to the cinema. * I will go to the party whether they invite me or not .

12 * ......... جداًً لدرجة أن So + Adjective + that
* She is so beautiful that all men want to marry her . * He is so excellent that he got full marks in all subjects . * جدا لدرجة أن Such a + adjective + that .. * She is such a beautiful girl that all men want to marry her . * He is such an excellent student that he got full marks in all subjects. لاحظ يمكن بدء الجملة بـ so أو such كما يلي : * So beautiful is she that all men want to marry her . * Such a beautiful girl is she that all men want to marry her . لاحظ عند البدء بـ so تأتي بعدها الصفة ثم الفعل ثم الفاعل . و عند البدء بـ such يأتي بعدها الصفة ثم الفاعل ثم الفعل .

13 * جدا لدرجة أنه لا يمكن ................ Too + adjective + to
* This test is too hard to answer. * The tea is too hot to drink . * كافي لـ Enough to…. , enough for.. * This money is enough for you . * This money is enough to buy the book . * This money is enough for you to buy the book . لاحظ ان enough to يأتي بعدها الفعل أما enough for يأتي بعدها الاسم * منـــذ Since * He hasn’t come to the club since his father was ill . * He didn’t come to the club since last week . لاحظ أن الرابط since يأتي بعده ماضي بسيط و قبله مضارع تام . لاحظ أن الرابط since يأتي بعده نقطة زمنية معينة last week , last month,1999

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