3 SIMPLE PAST TENSE 1) For certain past events with a certain time Time expressions:Last night/week, ….. ago, 1985, last friday,last june, recently (a short time ago), yesterday (the other day), this morning/season/year
4 E.g.I studied hard last night.I did not watch Tv at all.
5 2) With other past tenses Past continuous tense, past perfect tense, past perfect continuous, present perfect tense + since
6 TIME CONJUCTIONS (LINKING WORDS) When, by the time, after, before, until/till, as soon as, while, since, no sooner than, hardly/scarcely/barely when
7 WHEN When + simple past > Simple past When I went out, I saw him., When + simple past > Past continuousWhen I came into the class, the students were discussing.When + simple past > Past perfectWhen I came into the office, he had left.
8 When + simple past > Past perfect continuous When I came home, they ahd been sleeping.When + past perfect > Simpe pastWhen they had finished their homework, they went out.
9 Note: Reduction> The subject must be the same. When (I) got home, (I) ate something.>Reduction is possible.When (she) finished her essays, (I) checked her mistakes.>No reduction.
10 In active sentences , we use ‘gerund’ in reduction. When she finished the letter, she posted it.When finishing the letter, she posted it.
11 In passive sentences, we use ‘V3’ in reduction. When it is diagnosed at on cancer stage, cancer is not serious.When diagnosed at on cancer stage, cancer is not very serious.
12 Note: Alternatives to when> while When she was in privary school, she was very hardworking.While she was in privary school,………While in privary school, she was very hardworking.
13 Reduction: If the sentence is in active form, they use ‘gerund’. While he was having breakfast, he was reading newspaper.While having breakfast, he was reading newspaper.
14 If the sentence is passive form, we use ‘being +V3/V3’. While she was being given an operation, she had some problems.While being given an operation, ……………While given an operation, ………………….
15 AFTER After + simple past > Simple past After she ate dinner, she went out.After + past perfect > Simple pastAfter I washed my hands, I ate my lunch.
16 BEFORE Before + simple past > simple past Before I went to bed, I had brushed my teeth.Before + simple past > Past perfect
17 AS SOON AS As soon as + simple past/past perfect > Simple past As soon as she got home, she phoned me.As soon as he had finished this homework, he turned on Tv.
18 BY THE TIMEBy the time + simple past >past perfect/past perfect continuouspast continuous + alreadysimple past ( only for to be )
19 By the time I got home, the film had finished. By the time I got home, my sister had been sleeping.By the time I got home, my sister was already sleeping.By the time I got home, the film was over.
20 Until/TillUntil + simple past > Simple pastUntil I got there, the police looked after my nephew.Until + past perfect > Simple pastUntil he had finished his job, we waited for him.
21 NO SOONER _____ THAN No sooner Past perfect than Simple past No sooner had the small child stopped crying than he came.No sooner had I received a letter from him than he came.I had no sooner received a letter from him than he came.
22 HARDLY_____ WHEN Hardly Past perfect when Simple past Hardly had I bought a present for her when she gave me a present.(Inversion is not necessary when ‘hardly’ is used in sentences.)
23 PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE1) It happens in the past and it consists of a period of time.When + simple past/past continuous> Past continuous/past tenseWhile + simple past/past continuous > Past continuousBy the time + simple past > Past continuous+already
24 PAST PERFECT TENSE When + past perfect > Simple past When + simple past > Past perfectAfter + simple past/past perfect > Simple pastBefore + Simple past > Past perfect/Simple pastUntil + simple past/past perfect > Simple past
25 As soon as + simple past/past perfect > Simple past By the time + simple past > Past perfectNo sooner Past perfect than Past simpleHardly Past perfect when Past simple
26 PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE When I looked out, it had been snowing.There was 50cm snow on the ground.When I got there, he had been lying on the ground for a long time.When I got there, he was lying on the ground.>First sentence is not past but other second is past.