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©2007 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2/e PPTPPT.

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1 ©2007 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2/e PPTPPT

2 ©2007 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 The Business of Reports: Informal and Formal Report Writing McGraw-Hill/Irwin

3 3 The Business of Reports What Is a Report? Report ◦oral presentation or written business document that provides information, requests funding or approval, analyzes company or market data, or makes recommendations for innovation and change

4 4 The Business of Reports Styles of Reports Informal reports ◦usually brief and use personal pronouns (I, we, and you) and a direct style Formal reports ◦long and are constructed in a prescribed format

5 5 Purposes of Reports  Provide information  Analyze data and information  Persuade

6 6 Purposes of Reports Provide Information Informational reports ◦provide objective statistical data or facts. Analysis of the data is usually not included

7 7 Purposes of Reports Provide Information (continued) Types of informational reports:  Memos  Progress or interim reports  Compliance reports  Annual reports  Policy and procedure reports  Minutes

8 8 Purposes of Reports Writing an Annual Report Components of Annual Reports 1. yearly financial highlights 2. letter from the president/CEO 3. short- and long-term goals 4. management discussion and analysis 5. financial statement 6. stock price 7. information about officers and directors 8. summary

9 9 Purposes of Reports Sample Annual Report Analyze or Justify Analytical reports ◦offer interpretations of information or solutions to problems Justification reports ◦offer support for an action or determine the potential benefit of an action based on a series of reasons

10 10 Purposes of Reports Analyze or Justify (continued) Feasibility study ◦type of justification report that includes detailed research, analysis, and a judgment on the potential success or failure of an action

11 11 Purposes of Reports Writing a Justification Report 1.-Identify as information investigator & gatherer -Write brief statement of the problem or need 2.Provide brief history or describe problem 3.State recommendations, solutions, or actions 4.Describe benefits 5.Brief summary emphasizing primary benefits Sample Justification Report

12 12 Purposes of Reports Writing a Feasibility Report 1.Give purpose of report & any decision made 2.-Discuss background of issue or problem -Provide history & findings -State recommendations, solutions, or actions 3.Describe benefits 4.Specify any problems or disadvantages 5.State costs that may be incurred & time frames 6.Close with brief summary Sample Feasibility Report

13 13 Purposes of Reports Persuade and Propose Persuasive reports ◦propose, request, or recommend specific actions or problem solutions Business plan ◦comprehensive report that defines and describes all the components of a business, including its feasibility, profitability, and marketing environment

14 14 Purposes of Reports Persuade and Propose (continued) Proposal ◦persuasive written report that offers to provide a service, sell a product, or provide a solution to a problem or need Solicited formal proposals ◦submitted at the request of a potential funder

15 15 Purposes of Reports Persuade and Propose (continued) Funder ◦business, government agency, or private foundation that will approve or finance a project Unsolicited formal proposals ◦submitted to a government agency, company, or individual without having been requested or invited

16 16 Purposes of Reports What Are the Differences between Reports and Proposals? ◊Reports -provide information, analysis, or recommendations -used to solve problems -monitor or document progress -clarify or implement policies or procedures -guide change, direction, or decisions ◊Proposals -request funding or acceptance -in exchange for work to be performed

17 17 Organizing Reports Determine the Mission Ineffective problem/mission statement  Productivity is down because employee morale is low  Changes in the market make this a good time to invest in real estate  Meadowvale Health Clinic requires additional funding to maintain its current level of service

18 18 Organizing Reports Evaluate Your Audience Key info for fund raiser proposal:  Funding organization  Type of funder  Financials  Organization purpose and activities  Fields of interest

19 19 Organizing Reports Evaluate Your Audience (continued) Key info for fund raiser proposal (continued) :  Types of support  Limitations  Application information  Organization personnel  Funding activity

20 20 Organizing Reports Select a Report Structure Format the Report Primary report formats:  Manuscript  Memo  Letter

21 21 Organizing Reports Format the Report (continued) Writing reports:  Use positive language  Use appropriate graphics  Be honest  Be original  Be specific

22 22 Organizing Reports Establish the Scope of Information Scope of the report ◦the range of issues it addresses

23 23 Organizing Reports Assign Tasks and Collaborate Parts of a workplan:  Mission statement  Plan of investigation  Projection of results  Proposed outline  Task and assignment schedule

24 24 Conduct Research and Collect Data Complexity of the Problem Basic types of data to collect –Quantitative –Qualitative

25 25 Types of Problems Creative Problems Pattern Problems Solving Complex Problems Solving Creative Problems

26 26 Primary Data Collection Methods Surveys Experiments Observation Interviews Solving Pattern Problems

27 27 Primary Data Collection Methods Secondary Data Collection Methods  Library  Internet search engines  Books  Specific databases  Authoritative websites  Journal articles  Popular publications

28 28 Primary Data Collection Methods Analyzing and Interpreting Your Data Using and Applying Your Research Tone and Point of View in Report/Proposal Writing

29 29 Primary Data Collection Methods Practice Report Design  Determine the report goal  Evaluate the audience  Conduct research  Write the report  Check for design flaws

30 30 Questions

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