Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Theories of Development What Theories Do Grand Theories"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Theories of DevelopmentWhat Theories DoGrand TheoriesNewer Theories
2 Developmental Theory Developmental Theory a group of ideas, assumptions, generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations made about human growthprovides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
3 What Theories Do Theories produce a hypothesis. Theories generate discoveries.Theories offer practical guidance.… Theories are NOT facts.
4 Grand Theories Grand Theories of the Early 20th Century: Psychoanalytic TheoryBehavioral TheoryCognitive TheoryNewer Theories:Sociocultural TheoryUniversal Perspective:Humanism and Evolutionary Theory
5 Psychoanalytic Theory A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
6 Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of DevelopmentApp. AgeStage0-18 monthsORAL STAGE: lips, tongue, gums are focus of pleasurable sensations18ms. -3 yearsANAL STAGE: Anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations, toilet training most important3-6 yearsPHALLIC STAGE: Phallus (penis) most important. Boys proud/Girls wonder what’s wrong6-11 yearsLATENCY: not really stage. Period during which sexual needs quietAdolescenceGENITAL STAGE: Genitals are the focus, young person seeks sexual satisfactionAdulthoodGenital stage last throughout adulthood
7 Psychoanalytic Theory Erik Erikson (1902–1994)Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmentalcrisis.His first five stages build on Freud’s theory; but he also described three adult stages.
8 Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentApp. AgeConflictInfancy yearBasic Trust vs. MistrustEarly Childhood yearsAutonomy vs. ShamePreschool yearsInitiative vs. GuiltSchool Age yearsIndustry vs. InferiorityAdolescence yearsIdentity vs. ConfusionYoung Adulthood yearsIntimacy vs. IsolationMiddle Adulthood yearsGenerativity vs. StagnationMaturity deathIntegrity vs. Despair
9 BehaviorismA theory of human development that studies observable behavior.Also called “learning theory” as it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.Conditioning - the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningSocial Learning
10 BehaviorismClassical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov ( )(also called respondent conditioning), a process in which a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same response as to the meaningful one.
12 BehaviorismOperant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990)(also called instrumental conditioning) a learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired or by something unwanted.
13 BehaviorismSocial Learning Theory- Albert BanduraAn extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior.Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them.Self-Efficacy- how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.
14 Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action.Focuses on changes in how people think over time.Cognitive development occurs overfour age-related periodsConstructivist Perspective of Learning
16 Cognitive Theory Cognitive Equilibrium A state of mental balance, no confusionInterpret new ideas through past ideasEasy equilibrium not always possibleIf new experience is not understandable,cognitive disequilibrium can occurAssimilationAccommodation
17 Cognitive Theory Information Processing Not a single theory but a frameworkInspired by how a computer worksHow people think before they respondHow attention and thoughtaffects mental functionRelationship between oneperson’s thinking andanother’s
18 Newer Theories Sociocultural Theory Leo Vygotsky (1896-1934) Development results from a person’s interaction with their social and cultural surroundingsCulture is integral to developmentApprenticeship in thinking:how cognition is “taught” bythe older and more skilled
19 Zone of proximal development Sociocultural TheoryZone of proximal developmentMade up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiringLearner needs help to masterLearning must be individualized
20 The Universal Perspective HumanismAbraham Maslow ( ),Hierarchy of NeedsCarl Rogers ( )Stresses the potential of humans for goodAll people have the same needsEmphasize what people have in common
21 The Universal Perspective Evolutionary TheoryBased on Darwin’s ideasHumans are more alike than differentHuman development influenced by drives to survive and reproduceSelective adaptation: process by which people adapt to their environment
22 Eclectic Perspective The approach taken by most developmentalists Aspects of each of the various theories of development are appliedrather than adheringexclusively to one