Presentation on theme: "The United States and Slavery At the beginning of the year, we talked about US history being a blending of three ethnic groups that came together to."— Presentation transcript:
The United States and Slavery At the beginning of the year, we talked about US history being a blending of three ethnic groups that came together to form the United States. The Native Americans were the original occupants who were conquered and driven from their lands. The Europeans were the invaders who came, who conquered and who made the land their own. Then there were the African people who were torn away from their families by other Africans, sold on the slave market, packed onto slave ships and taken to America against their will.
The Middle Passage The Middle Passage was the name for the middle leg of a three part voyage which began and ended in Europe. The first leg of the journey began in Europe where the ships would land in Africa and exchange this cargo for human slaves. This was the middle leg of the journey in which the slaves were taken to the Americas.
The Beginnings of Slavery In The US However, a successful precedent had already been established. The Portuguese and Spanish had already brought Africans to South and Latin America. So, in 1619 the first Africans were brought to the colony Jamestown, Virginia by the Dutch. Enslaving the Native Americans did not prove to be successful Native Americans were highly likely to catch European diseases. They were familiar with the terrain and could escape easier. They had political allies that could fight against the “owners.”
Early Success with African Labor Proximity-It only took 2-6 weeks to get to the colonies from the Caribbean at first. Experience-They had previous experience and knowledge working in sugar and rice production. Immunity from diseases-Less likely to get sick due to prolonged contact over centuries. Low escape possibilities-They did not know the land, had no allies, and were highly visible because of skin color.
Slavery in the Colonies Slavery expanded within certain regional areas. In the New England colonies, there were fewer slaves who lived in cities and small farms. In the Chesapeake Bay colonies, slavery flourished on the large tobacco plantations, which was the center of the domestic slave trade. Likewise in the Carolinas and Georgia also grew because of the labor intensive rice and cotton plantations
The Effects of the American Revolution and the Constitution With the Declaration of Independence, the fight for freedom and the establishment of the Constitution, a moral dilemma arose. How could the people of the United States fight for their natural God given rights, yet still hold other human beings in bondage. It did not make sense. Gradual abolition of slavery in the North End of the Atlantic Slave Trade Yet with the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 the entrenchment of slavery in the South is solidified.
Slave Codes Although each colony had differing ideas about the rights of slaves, there were some common threads in slave codes across areas where slavery was common. Legally considered property, slaves were not allowed to own property of their own. They were not allowed to assemble without the presence of a white person. Slaves that lived off the plantation were subject to special curfews. In the courts, a slave accused of any crime against a white person was doomed. No testimony could be made by a slave against a white person. Therefore, the slave's side of the story could never be told in a court of law. Of course, slaves were conspicuously absent from juries as well.
Resistance Flight-Slaves would runaway. Truancy, leave for a short amount of time and then return. It was too dangerous to be a runaway slave. Organized rebellions. Covert Action, slaves would intentionally destroy crops, start fires, steal stuff, break tools, poison food. Nat Turner's insurrection, led to the death of many slaves, including Turner, were later executed. In the South, the preconditions for successful rebellion did not exist, and tended to bring increased suffering and repression to the slave community.
The Missouri Compromise Anti-slavery leaders were afraid that allowing another slave state would upset what was then a delicate balance between slave states and free states. Because both sides were on opposite sides of the issue, both sides couldn't be satisfied by the same outcome. So Congress gave both sides something: Each side got a new state. Maine applied for statehood about the same time, and both were eventually admitted to the Union, Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. When Missouri applied to become a state, in 1819, the Union had 22 states, 11 allowing slavery and 11 outlawing it. Missouri wanted to become a slave state.
The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave who was taken to a free territory by his owner. He sued for his freedom because he lived in the free territory. His case went all the way to the Supreme Court, where Scott loses because he was not considered a citizen, thus could not sue in federal court. The decision of the Courts was that he was considered “property” and could be taken anywhere. This set back the hope of the slaves many years
the Start of the Civil War Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860 without any southern electoral votes. Many southern states quickly seceded from the Union, South Carolina leading the way. Southern troops fired upon Fort Sumter, starting the Civil War. The North fought to preserve the Union, while the South fought to preserve slavery.
the Emancipation Proclamation Early in the war, Lincoln began to think about ending slavery in the South to help end the war. On September 22, 1862 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation which declared an end to slavery in the states in rebellion on January 1, 1863. What did it do? Nothing. It only freed slaves in the states that had seceded.
the 13th Amendment The South lost, and the states were forced to accept the 13th Amendment to the Constitution before they could be readmitted into the Union. 13th Amendment abolished slavery in the United States. It was ratified in 1865. Is it any different? Why the need for the Civil Rights? What was life like for the free black Americans after slavery?