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The Founding of the European Union

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1 The Founding of the European Union
Historical overview of the European integration project

2 Inter war years Preservation of peace and security
An overall political authority to manage European conflicts Federalism: a liberal intellectual current

3 War years Crisis of nation state system (balance of power)
Crisis of the state (invasion / collaboration / ideological division) Anti-Nazi resistance: break with nationalism Reconstruction of politics through a European federal state

4 Post-war Practical co-ordination of reconstruction
Integration of defeated states Need security system for western Europe New emphasis on economic modernisation and living standards

5 Solutions French-German co-operation / integration
Contain Germany in an integrated Europe Federalists: promote federal ideal, a popular movement

6 The UK Churchill had proposed Anglo-French Union in 1940 ad suggested a United States of Europe with common institutions and military 1946 in Zurich, Churchill: European project should be based around France and Germany, not Britain Britain was ‘with Europe but not of it’

7 The Founding Fathers Jean MONNET – French businessman and Planning Minister Robert SCHUMANN – French Foreign Minister Committed to federal vision, but also practical politics and specific forms of integration

8 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
1951 Treaty of Paris: unifies coal and steel industries of France and Germany. Economic integration for the prevention of conflict. Joined by Italy and the Benelux countries 4 common institutions: High Authority; Council of Ministers; Assembly; Court

9 Extension of integration: 1950s
1952 European Defence Community proposed but rejected by UK and France 1954: Western European Union for military cooperation 1955: Spaak Report proposes a Customs Union to further integration 1957: Goal of Common Market

10 Treaty of Rome (1957) The ‘six’ create the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) through signing the Treaties of Rome. They came into effect on 1 January 1958.

11 Key developments 1965: French boycott establishes national veto
1973: First enlargement – Denmark, Ireland and the UK join 1979: European Parliament becomes directly elected by universal suffrage 1981: Accession of Greece 1986: Accession of Spain and Portugal

12 Single European Act (1986) Timetable and implementation provisions for Single European Market EEC becomes EC Some additional powers for Parliament Formalised Qualified Majority Voting Considered the ‘relaunch’ of Europe after ‘Eurosclerosis’ of 1970s

13 Treaty on European Union (1992)
Maastricht Treaty, into effect 1 November 1993 Created 3 pillar system: Supranational Pillar I: EMU, the Treaties Intergovernmental Pillar II: Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) Intergovernmental Pillar III: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Established European citizenship

14 From 6 to 27 1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden accede to EU (Norway no in referendum) 1997: Treaty of Amsterdam 2000: Treaty of Nice – institutional reform for enlargement 2002: Launch of single currency 2004: Enlargement to the East 2005: Constitution for Europe 2007 Bulgaria and Romania join

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