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The Scramble for Africa

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Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Scramble for Africa
Western Imperialism The Scramble for Africa

2 Imperialism Stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker (not necessarily smaller) nations Economically Politically Culturally Militarily

3 4 Main Factors in the Growth of Imperialism
Economic Nationalistic Military Humanitarian

4 Economic Factors Industrialization created a need for more natural resources Where were most natural resources found?

5 Underdeveloped Countries
Asia Africa

6 Military Factors Advances in technology Stronger armies & navies
Need for military bases Africans & Asians could not compete

7 Nationalistic Factors
Nationalism = a devotion to one’s nation Feelings of superiority White man = “civilized” Africans & Asians = “uncivilized” “The White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling)

CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTS ECONOMIC INTERESTS Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources. Manufacturers hoped for new markets for factory goods. Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population. Merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world. Western leaders were motivated by nationalism. HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISM Many westerners felt concern for their “little brothers” overseas. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials believed they had a duty to spread western civilization. Many westerners viewed European races as superior to all others. They saw imperial conquest as nature’s way of improving the human species.

In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers. A protectorate cost less to run than a colony and usually did not require a large military presence. A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. The United States claimed Latin America as its sphere of influence. The French practiced direct rule, sending officials to administer their colonies. The British practiced on indirect rule, using local rulers to govern their colonies.

10 White Man’s Burden By Rudyard Kipling

11 White Man’s Burden Why did Kipling consider imperialism to be beneficial? He thought the “captive” peoples would benefit from the imperialists’ efforts to end famine and disease.

Since long before 1800, the region had close ties to the Muslim world. In the early 1800s, much of the region remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman Empire. On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify Islam. In the forest regions, the Asante controlled smaller states. These smaller tributary states were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. EAST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on.

13 How the scramble began 1870s
Belgian King Leopold II- established trade with native Africans in the Congo This single act began an Imperialistic frenzy to Africa

14 The Berlin Conference Where: Berlin (surprise), Germany
When: Who: The US and 14 European nations Missing: Africans (weren’t invited!) Purpose: to avoid potential conflict in Africa

15 Created the following guidelines:
Any sovereign power that wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers Any such annexation should be validated by effective occupation Treaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty


17 AFRICAN RESISTENCE Algerians battled the French for years.
The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British. East Africans fought wars against the Germans. In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.



20 CLOSURE Name three forms of imperial control.
What is the difference between direct and indirect rule?

21 Response Direct and indirect rule. Protectorates Sphere of Influence
French – direct rule - sent officers from France to run their colonies. British – indirect – chose local officers.

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