4 Habitat (house) Niche (occupation) The place where an organism lives out its lifeNiche (occupation)Strategies and adaptations a species uses in its own environmentHow the species gets food and shelter
5 Population A group of organisms that belongs to the same species Population members breed with each other and live in the same area
6 Population dynamicsThe study of the change in population numbers and the factors influencing those changesPopulationsizeBirthImmigrationDeathEmmigration
7 Models of Population Growth Exponential GrowthBirth exceeds deathPopulation Size ExplodesT=time in generationsr-= growth rateN=popsizeR=<>1
8 Exponential growth – density independent Population sizeTime, in generations
9 Can this happen in nature? YesInvasive speciesUniform habitatNo predatorsNo diseaseUnlimited areaCan this happen?70 miles a yearNo constraints
10 K Logistic equation – density dependent Population size Carrying capacityr = intrinsic rate of increase. B-D. R=1+rTime, in generations
11 K = Carrying capacityThe maximum number of individuals that a habitat can support for a prolonged period of timeNot constant, it fluctuates.How to reconcile with density independence
12 Limiting Factors-factors that affect the carrying capacity Density-independent factorsWeather (storms, cold, drought)Some diseases (DDT poisoning)Density-dependent factorsFood or PredatorsSpace or ShelterOther diseases (rabies)
13 Population structureA population that is 75% adults, 25% juveniles is very different from a population of 25% adults and 75% juveniles.
14 Population structureAge structure – distribution of ages in a population.Size structure – distribution of sizes in a population.
15 Community Different populations in a certain area at a certain time. Changes in one population cause changes in other populations
16 Symbiosis living together Three major kinds of symbiosis Mutualism-both species benefitCommensalism-one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmedParasitism-one species benefits at the expense of anotherPredator-Prey Relationship
17 EcosystemAll the different populations in a community and the community’s abiotic factorsThere are two major kinds of ecosystems: terrestrial and aquatic
18 Biotic vs. AbioticBiotic factors – all living organisms in an environmentAbiotic Factors—nonliving factors in an environmentAirTemperatureWaterLightSoil
19 BiomesThe typical weather patterns over a long period of time is the climate.
20 Biomes are a group of ecosystems with similar climates (temperature and rainfall) and organisms.
21 Temperatures and Precipitation Determine the type of Biome
22 Is the temperature of each Biome: Hot, moderate, or cold? Tundra -Desert -Temperate Grassland -Tropical savanna -Taiga -Temperate forest -Tropical rainforest -Tundra - ColdDesert - HotTemperate Grassland - ModerateTropical savanna - HotTaiga - ColdTemperate forest - ModerateTropical rainforest - Hot
24 TundraFound in Antarctica and the North Pole, North of the Arctic Circle.Grass, lichen and herbsPermafrost – layer of soil that is always frozen.Very short warm season that is very wetMany insects during warm season
25 Plants include mosses, shrubs and willow trees.
26 Animals such as wolves, foxes, hares and caribou grow thick fur during the winter to keep warm.
27 Taiga Found in Northern Hemisphere. Spruce and Fir trees Growing season very shortNearly constant daylight in summerMany lakes and swamps
29 Temperate Forestclimate and amount of sunlight can vary tremendously between each season.four types: Deciduous forest, Evergreen forest, temperate rain forest, and mixed evergreen and deciduous forests.
30 Animals include deer, skunks, insects and bears.
31 Grasslands Tall, perennial grasses and no trees. Cover a quarter of the land on Earth.
32 Savannas are like the grasslands except that they do receive enough rain to support small trees.
33 SavannaFound near equator between tropical rain forest and desert biomesGrass, scattered trees, shrubs, many with thornsMany grazing animalsHave a wet and dry seasonPlants and animals most active during wet season.
34 Animals that appear in both include: bison, antelopes, giraffes and kangaroos.
35 DesertDeserts take up 8.6 million square miles on Earth.
36 Desert Get less than 25 cm of rain each year Has little or no vegetationDriest places on earth
37 In the Desert Biome, plants (cactus) have the ability to hold water for later use and most animals (scorpion) are nocturnal.