Presentation on theme: "Essential Elements of 18 th Century Field Maneuvers for Warner’s Extra Continental Regiment (re-created) [Click for Next] 110207."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Elements of 18 th Century Field Maneuvers for Warner’s Extra Continental Regiment (re-created) [Click for Next] 110207
This tutorial describes and animates several essential definitions and field maneuvers which are minimum building blocks for moving troops on an 18 th Century battlefield. They were adapted from Manual Exercise, Evolutions, Manouervres &c. to be Observed and Followed by the Militia of New York: With some rules and regulations for their improvement; &c. and an explanatory Plate by Col. Guy Johnson. Alexander and James Robertson, Albany. 1772. An Easy Plan of Discipline for a Militia by Timothy Pickering Jr. Samuel & Ebenezer Hall, Salem. 1775. Re-published by The King’s Press, Oldwick, NJ. Regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the United States, by Baron de Stueben. Boston, 1794. Reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 1985 These maneuvers are primarily for Close Order formations on the field or in parades. The animations are simplified – positions for officers and NCO’s are omitted from the tutorial and formations are not to scale. [Click for Next]
Before showing the field maneuvers, it is essential to understand several definitions: –The Common Step is a pace of 2 feet and about 75 to a minute. –The Quick Step is also about 2 feet and about 120 in a minute. [Click for Next] Stop short on the advanced foot, bringing up the other foot and dressing to the right. Forward (Quick)– March! Words of Command:Explanation: Step off with the left foot in a free and easy step in a common step (or quick step as ordered), careful to remain dressed to the adjacent solider. Halt!
A rank is a section of soldiers arranged side by side in a line (typically from right to left). Ranks 1 st Rank 2 nd Rank Rank Front of Platoon [Click for Next]
Files File Front of Platoon File Leader(s) A file is a section of soldiers arranged in an exact line one behind another from front to rear. [Click for Next]
Marching by files When marching in files, it is important to keep the correct spacing between the first and second ranks and ranks dressed in a straight line. Disorder in the ranks and files makes it difficult or impossible to maneuver effectively. [Click for Next]
The following maneuvers are demonstrated: The Oblique step Wheeling Breaking off and forming by the Oblique step Opening ranks and closing ranks to the front Forming Column from a Line Forming a Line from Column [Click for Next]
The Oblique Step The Oblique Step allows simultaneous lateral and forward movement of a formation (at roughly a 45 0 angle) without changing the front of the line. Obliques can be to the left or the right as necessary and in common or quick time. Step diagonally to the right about 2 feet with the right foot. Bring up the left, placing the heel directly before the toes of the right foot; keep the shoulders square to the front. Continue. Left oblique – step off with the left foot… To the Right Oblique – March! Words of Command:Explanation: [Click for Next]
The Oblique Step Platoon! To the Right Oblique -- March! Halt! Click to animate [Click for Next]
Wheeling Wheeling allows a formation to change direction by using one of the flanking soldiers (or file) as a pivot point and marching along arced line changing the direction of the platoon. Wheeling can be to the left or the right and common or quick time as necessary. 1st The leftmost man turns his head briskly to the right (the inside of the turn). All others in the rank turn their heads to the left toward the outside of the turn. 2nd The right most man marches in place as the pivot point, the rest of the rank shortens their steps to remain dressed with the adjacent man. File closers also march a bit sideways during the wheel to cover their file leader in the first rank. To Right Wheel – March! Words of Command: Explanation: [Click for Next]
Wheeling Platoon! To the Right Wheel -- March! Halt! Click to animate [Click for Next] Front of Platoon
Counter march The counter march allows the platoon to change its front without changing the order of the files. The platoon faces to the right. Each platoon wheels (by files) to the right-about. When the right hand file reaches the spot where the left file stood – they halt. The platoon faces to the left. Take care to counter march from the right, by platoons! To the right--face! March! Halt! To the left -- face! [Click for Next] Words of Command:Explanation:
Counter march [Click for Next] Click to animate Take care to counter march from the right, by platoons! To the right--Face! March! Halt! To the left--Face! Front of Platoon New front
Counter marches are not conducted in sections larger than platoons to avoid confusion and disarray on the field. The second (and subsequent platoons) of the company simply follow the 1 st platoon until reaching the appropriate position. [Click for Next]
Opening the Ranks As part of inspection, distance between the 1 st and 2 nd ranks is increased so inspecting officers can move freely among the ranks. The rear rank faces right-about, takes 4 paces, halts, and comes right-about again. Rear rank – Take distance! March! [Click for Next] Words of Command: Explanation:
Opening the ranks [Click for Next] Click to animate Rear rank – Take distance! March! Front of Platoon
Close to the Front After inspection, the rear rank closes to the front, returning the platoon to proper formation. The rear rank marches forward 4 steps and halts. Rear rank – Close to the front! March! [Click for Next] Words of Command: Explanation:
Close to the Front [Click for Next] Click to animate Rear rank -- Close to the front! March! Front of Platoon
Breaking off and reforming by the oblique step When a platoon or company is too wide to pass through a narrow space, such as a bridge or roadway, breaking off by files reduces the width of the front of the line, allowing the platoon or company to pass. This maneuver may also be used to create a column of march where a column less than a platoon wide is required. The specified number of soldiers in the right hand section, oblique steps to the left while the left hand section oblique steps to the right until the sections cover each other. The first section obliques to the right, and the second to the left until they are uncovered when both march forward to form a line. Take care to break off by sections of ___! Sections -- Break off! Form platoon -- March! [Click for Next] Words of Command: Explanation:
Breaking off and reforming by the oblique step Click to animate [Click for Next] Take care to break off by sections of 3! Sections -- Break off! Front! Form Platoon!
Forming a Column When a battalion of companies are required to move together, especially over longer distances, the battalion(s) are maneuvered by platoon to form a column. Columns are either open or closed. An open column maintains the spacing between platoons, where a closed column closes the distance between platoons to 2 paces. [Click for Next]
Forming an Open Column Platoon commanders order – Right Wheel! Each platoon wheels to form a column. Battalion! Take care to form (Open) Column by platoons! March! [Click for Next] Words of Command: Explanation:
Form Open Column by platoons Front of Battalion 2 nd Platoon1 st Platoon Battalion! Form (Open) Column by platoons -- March! Direction of March 3 rd Platoon4 th Platoon Click to animate [Click for Next] Right Wheel!
Forming a Line from Column A column formation cannot effectively engage an opposing force or withstand an attack. The battalion(s) must deploy into a line more or less parallel to the opposing force by marching obliquely to re-from the battle line. Platoon commanders order – Left Oblique! The leading platoon stands fast. The remaining platoons march obliquely to the left to form a battle line. Battalion! Take care to go from Column to Line – the Right in Front! March! [Click for Next] Words of Command: Explanation:
Form Line from Column 2 nd Platoon 1 st Platoon Battalion! Form Line by platoons – March! Direction of March & Enemy 3 rd Platoon 4 th Platoon Click to animate [Click for Next] 2 nd Platoon1 st Platoon3 rd Platoon4 th Platoon Left Oblique!
Form Line from Column 2 nd Platoon 1 st Platoon Battalion! Form Line by platoons – the Left in Front! March! Direction of March & Enemy 3 rd Platoon 4 th Platoon Click to animate [Click for Next] 2 nd Platoon1 st Platoon3 rd Platoon4 th Platoon
Alternate commands for the same maneuver are: Display Column to the Left (Right) Form Battalion to the Left (Right) [Click for Next]
The tutorial was created for Warner’s Extra Continental Regiment (re-created) by Todd Kuntz based on a previous animation by Cliff Mullen. This tutorial is copyrighted by Todd Kuntz and is free to download as long as it remains unaltered. www.warnersregiment.com