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The 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Information Technology Application (IITA 2009) 21-22 November Nanchang China ZPD Incidence Development.

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Presentation on theme: "The 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Information Technology Application (IITA 2009) 21-22 November Nanchang China ZPD Incidence Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Information Technology Application (IITA 2009) November Nanchang China ZPD Incidence Development Strategy for Demand of ICTs in Higher Education Institutes of PAKISTAN Author: Zaffar Ahmed Shaikh IQRA University Karachi (PAKISTAN)

2 Agenda Abstract Background Introduction Methodology Discussion
Conclusions References

3 Glossary of terms used Delphi Panelists
Expert group comprising of five categories of university personnel on which questionnaire instrument was administered HEC Higher Education Commission HEIs Higher Education Institutes HES Higher Education System ICT Information & Communication technology ZPD Zone of Proximal Development

4 Abstract This study analyses ICT–based teaching/learning issues identified in a study already constructed on the same panel of Delphi experts at Pakistani higher education (HE) level and hence consequently efforts to devise a strategy as a solution. Using normative Delphi method which spanned to two rounds, a comprehensive questionnaire on Information & Communication Technology (ICT) strategic framework for tertiary education was developed. Panelists stratified a ZPD (Zone of proximal development) incidence development strategy which chalks out measures HE authorities should take in order to properly integrate ICTs in their higher education institutes (HEIs). It was determined that ICT integration in HE need be in lined with proper strategy in order to get their true benefits.

5 Background Paper titled “ICT for shaping the future of higher education in Pakistan”, WORLDCOMP’09, FEC’09, Las Vegas USA, July 2009. Paper titled “Usage, Acceptance, Adoption, and Diffusion of ICTs in Higher Education: A Measurement of Critical Factors”, Journal of Information Technology Impact Volume 9 No. 2, 63-80, 2009

6 Introduction A HEI is a place where more interdisciplinary work being carried out; hence ICT systems by which exchange of ideas and information is facilitated are needed [1]. ICT usage at home and at educational institute provides students the opportunity to extend their learning beyond the classroom and therefore they have become able to continue their learning experiences out with the education environment [2]. Sometimes unfortunately, teachers hang behind in adopting ICT innovations and hence unsuccessfully resisting the expected; [3] argue in their study that for teachers, change either in ICT innovations, pedagogical practices or in domain area is unavoidable; such change is predictable and manageable process and requires teachers to change their teaching tools/methods in timely fashion. It is perceived that while more and more ICT pushed-in in academia with time passed; our teachers will become more confident in using a variety of hardware/software to motivate and challenge their students within varied teaching & learning styles [4].

7 ZPD Gap States that when a child at certain age level solve problems with help or guidance; but once he internalize these problem solving techniques, he can tackle and solve same nature of problems independently. ZPD gap is the difference between future/maximum and current state of any development/use of ICT. In this research, teaching/learning with and without the help/use of ICTs at HE level is explored and their ZPD gaps are recorded, so that a strategy that can reduce these gaps to a minimum can be devised.

8 ZPD Incidence Development Strategy
ZPD gaps can be reduced with some proper mechanism or strategy. In this study, university personnel are asked to devise ZPD incidence development strategy with the help of normative Delphi technique. The vision of ZPD incidence development strategy is to improve teacher/learner experiences by the smart use of ICTs in ICT-based HE. It further guides and coordinates ICT investment towards government’s vision of improved learning outcomes at HE level.

9 Methodology Data showing ZPD gaps obtained through normative Delphi study initially conducted in [6] has been taken as input in this study as shown in Table 1. Further extending that study, the same group of panelists was asked to devise a ZPD incidence development strategy which may chalk out measures HE authorities should take in order to properly integrate ICTs in their HEIs.

10 Analysis: Table 1: ZPD gaps (Source: [6])
ISSUES ZPD Gap Planning/Developing/Organizing Instruction 2.07 Housekeeping & Record keeping Tasks 1.93 Managing Students Conduct Presenting Subject Material/Teaching 1.87 Assessing Student’s Learning 2.03 Academic Research 2.10 Administrative Support 1.90 Social Networking 1.97 Library Research & Information 1.80 Group Discussion/Supervision/Training 2.79 Use of Common ICT tools/applications 0.03 Use of Educational/Research ICT tools Rely on ICTs in HEIs 0.93 Use of ICTs HEIs Help by ICTs in HEIs 1.00 ICT Demand in HEIs 1.88 ICT Supply in HEIs 2.69 Problem of Attitude in HEIs 0.47

11 Discussion on results Significant ZPD gaps are calculated in almost all dimensions while relating these teaching/learning issues with HEIs of Pakistan. Such big gaps show confidence level of students/faculty/staff in using and getting benefits from these technologies in their everyday routine tasks. Lack of ICT-based training, unavailability of resources, under funding, lack of vision/creativity/attitude, ICT-based curriculum issues, and lack of political will, are some the main causes of such big ZPD gaps that this study suggests. It was found while reviewing current ICT status in less developed countries that there is no such strategy in existence at any state in the developing countries (also Pakistan) that provide persistent solution to this global issue. Hence, by this study, we have tried to devise a strategy that discuss some best practices and recommend measures to the authorities of HEIs of Pakistan for ICT enhancement.

12 Conclusions ZPD incidence development strategy as suggested by Delphi panelists is comprised of six dimensions, each of which focuses on a distinct area of development. A consolidated list of recommendations is given on next slides.

13 ICT for teaching, learning, and development
Education portal for curriculum purposes need be developed, Ongoing training to teaching/support staff be provided, Innovative methods of teaching/learning are encouraged to be used in routine work, Teams of teachers, educational advisors, and library staff be asked to develop course-based educational content in local/regional and in English language, Curriculum-based local intranet in each HEI need be developed which may be linked with education portal, Video-conferencing/video streaming facility must be made available for curriculum and management purposes.

14 ICT for gaining proper attainment of students
Enabling teachers to record and evaluate students class/course attainment at the classroom level by providing them relevant ICT tools and applications, Students progress between key stages may be measured through management information system (MIS), Database of students/staff records and data warehouse for data analysis services should be designed to increase the current level of data sharing, Relevant database tools integrated with database and data warehouse should be provided to universities for tracking students class/course progress, and A policy regarding use of available software/hardware while delivering a lecture or performing some accounting/admin task should be developed.

15 ICT for improving teaching skills
Design of a persistent training program for students/faculty/staff that address weak areas in the use of ICT, A mechanism should be devised by which university teaching/support staff receive regular technological and curriculum related updates through internet, education portal, intranet, and other sources, Workshops for top management and decision making authorities of HEIs should be arranged through which they receive information about best practices and strategic data management advice to maintain effectiveness of data, HE authorities should provide their faculty the best available educational software/hardware in the market, HE teaching/support staff should get opportunities of studying and gaining higher qualifications through scholarships/fellowships, and attending research oriented events worldwide.

16 ICT for managing, sharing, and using information
Mechanism for secure electronic transfer of information among all institutes of HE, Mechanism for secure and efficient data flow through video-conferencing and video streaming, Supporting students/faculty/support staff to use intranet in their routine tasks, Enable high speed internet access for management, faculty and administrative staff, All HEIs should have an established information management strategy to be shared with parents, top authorities and other related stakeholders, Design of a mechanism that provide access to appropriate and secure information using portal technology to parents, higher authorities, and other related stakeholders, Design a class/course management system supporting students attendance policies, timetabling, grading, conduct, and other student and teacher related policies.

17 ICT for partnership, training/community learning
All institutes of HE should establish ICT training centers that not only fulfill local training needs of staff but also provide such services to communities of nearby area, Training programs that develop skills of ICT tutors should be designed by every HEI to enable them to train faculty/support staff with major developmental and technological changes occur with time in the world of ICT, Develop a countrywide e-learning program which provide high quality education services to remote students on anywhere and anytime learning pattern.

18 ICT for connectivity and access
All institutes of HE should have computer levels at or in excess of 3:1 students-computer ratio by the end of 2019. 50% of teaching faculty should have access to laptops by the end of 2019, Devise a mechanism for access of high speed broadband/internet connection to all universities, All institutions of HE should have access to wireless technologies to achieve ‘mobile/anywhere’ access, Use of video conferencing and video streaming should be extended between HE institutes, Secure and efficient links should be established via “thin-client technology” between HEIs that enable multiple-access to shared data/data warehouse.

19 References “Information and Communication Technology Strategic Plan, to ,” University of Oxford, Retrieved August 2009, from: “Argyll and Bute Community Services: ICT Strategy for Education,” Retrieved August 2009, from: S. Gillard, D. Bailey, and E. Nolan, “Ten reasons for IT educators to be early adopters of IT innovations,” Journal of Information Technology Education, vol. 7, 2008, pp P. Deshpande, “Connected – where next?: A strategy for the next phase in the development of education ICT in Bournemouth,” Retrieved August 2009, from: L. S. Vygotsky, “Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes,” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: USA, 1978. Z. A. Shaikh, “Usage, acceptance, adoption, and diffusion of information & communication technologies in higher education: a measurement of critical factors,” Journal of Information Technology Impact vol. 9(2), July 2009, pp M. Kelly, “Top 6 teacher tasks – what teachers do,” Retrieved August 2009, from:

20 Thanks

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