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Welcome Introduction Parking lot Etc.

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1 Comprehension Focus Groups: An Intervention for Reversing Reading Failure
Welcome Introduction Parking lot Etc. Dorn, L. & Soffos, C. (2009). Interventions that Work: Comprehension Focus Groups. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 1

2 Objectives Develop an understanding of Comprehension Focus Groups
Analyze lessons within the Reading and Writing phases Discuss observations of teaching practices during CFG phases Objectives for today’s session

3 Comprehensive Intervention Model
Systemic and layered design for increasing the literacy achievement of struggling readers in kindergarten to eighth grades Reading Recovery (1st grade) Oral Language and Literacy Group (K-8th grades) Guided Reading Plus Group (1st-6th grades) Assisted Writing/Interactive Writing Group (K-1st grades) Assisted Writing/Writing-Aloud Group (1st-4th grades) Writing Process Group (1st-8th grades) Comprehension Focus Group (2nd-8th grades) Content Strategy Group (3rd-8th grades) Response to Intervention 3 tiers, starting with universal instruction- classroom instruction and differentiation The interventions in Comprehensive Intervention Model can be used within the RtI tiers

4 Comprehensive Intervention Model
Teachers must be experts in observing the changes that occur over time in children’s literacy behaviors and be able to make moment-to-moment decisions based on their children’s strengths and areas of need None of the interventions in CIM are ‘packages’. It always comes down to data, observations, and teacher expertise.

5 Comprehension Focus Groups
A series of reading and writing lessons in a specific genre that occur over a period of weeks. The goal is to help struggling readers develop efficient strategies for problem solving in texts and to comprehend the message at deeper levels. In a unit of study, we take what we know about writing, we take what we know about our students, and we plan a series of lessons that get students thinking about this genre of reading and writing in important ways. We know that when we leave this unit of study, the door will still be wide open for students to learn more. “Coverage” just doesn’t seem to work as a concept for writing curriculum. “Depth” is the word we need in order to help us plan. We’ll go deep, staying down as long as we can, but eventually we’ll have to come back up for air. As teachers, we must set up acquisition settings where all learners in our classrooms construct their own knowledge. Let’s discuss some of theoretical principals that support learning. Briefly turn and talk- what are some best practices/ guiding principles in learning and teacher instruction? 5

6 Comprehension Focus Groups
Thirty minutes daily Predictable framework with established routines Units of study for deep comprehension Book Studies-- minimum of three weeks per set Writing Process - typically two weeks per piece Progress monitoring (end of each unit) Begins with reading phases Continues with writing phases

7 Teaching Focus: Comprehension
To help students consistently use knowledge of text genre and text structures in order to read for a specific purpose and to use appropriate strategies to construct meaning. To help students consistently use knowledge of text genre and text structures in order to write for a specific purpose and to use strategies to convey an appropriate message. The focus in both the reading phase and the writing phase is on comprehension and the strategies we use that help us understand text.

8 Materials Mentor Texts for Genre Unit of Study
Multiple Copies of Texts Within a Genre Unit of Study Large Chart Paper for Constructing Anchor Charts Large Chart Paper for Writing-Aloud Activity Large Laminated Copies of Text Maps (Reading) Large Laminated Copies of Text Guides (Writing) Student Response Logs with Three Tabs Reproducible Copies of Text Maps & Guides for Logs Reproducible Copies of Comprehension Prompts for Logs Reproducible Copies of Strategic Behaviors in Reading and Writing

9 Large Chart Paper for Co-Constructed Charts
Charts are used during each of the phases in CFG- reading and writing

10 Large Text Maps Text maps and text guides are used during reading and writing phases Although there are separate reading and writing phases, students are always connecting reading and writing

11 Appropriate Texts Texts can be picture books or chapter books.
Appropriate for students reading and allowing student choice

12 Strategic Prompts--- Word Solving & Comprehension
Teacher models thinking through CFG and using strategies when reading Students use prompts to help them think about their reading, discuss their reading and write about their reading.

13 Comprehension Focus Group: Personal Narrative Study
DVD Episodes for Observation and Analysis Handouts Planner for Comprehension Focus Groups- filled in Guide Sheet for CFG T-chart for taking notes Quickly go through next few slides, explaining the prepare for reading phase

14 DVD Chapter 1: Prepare for the Reading Phases
Episode 1: Introduction to the Genre Episode 2: Prepare for the Reading Explain 2 video clips of preparing for reading phase

15 Prepare for the Reading Phases
Teacher introduces new genre. Teacher reads aloud a mentor text and teacher and students discuss text at meaning level. Teacher and students analyze text structure for the genre on a large text map and discuss why understanding text structure deepens comprehension. Teacher uses data from the lesson to determine if further lessons are needed on understanding the genre. 15

16 Prepare for Reading Phases
Refer to handout Prepare for Reading Phases

17 Prepare for the Reading Phases
Teacher introduces 3 books for book study. Students use strategies to preview each book and rank order for reading. Students explain why they selected their top choice. Teacher gives students blank copy of a single map to complete after reading the entire text. Students place copy behind “Text Map” section in response log. Watch video clips of preparing for the reading phases Write down observations on t-chart handout Guiding Questions: Introduction to the genre What are some examples of how the teachers provides explicit language and clear demonstrations to build connections between text structure and reading comprehension? Prepare for the reading How much time does the teacher devote to each introduction? How does she scaffold the students to apply previewing strategies for selecting and ranking the three books? Observe the students’ behaviors and record specific evidence that indicates their understanding of these critical strategies. Turn and talk after each clip 17

18 DVD Chapter 2: Reading Phase One
Comprehension Mini-Lesson Book Orientation Independent Reading Strategy Prompt There are two reading phases Within each phase, we will watch a few video clips Refer to handout: Planner for CFG


20 Teacher teaches a word solving strategy or a comprehension strategy.
Reading Phase One Teacher teaches a word solving strategy or a comprehension strategy. During lesson, the teacher prompts students to verbalize strategies they used to problem-solve on words or comprehend the message. Teacher records strategies on an anchor chart. Summarize steps Guiding Questions: Comprehension mini lesson- The mini-lesson includes two critical components: teacher modeling and think aloud for using comprehension strategies; opportunities for the students to apply the strategies with teacher support. As you watch, make note of these two components. Observe the interaction for evidence that the students are applying the knowledge gained from the mini-lesson to independent practice. 20

21 Before Reading Teacher provides a book introduction to the new book, including a purpose for reading. Teacher prompts students to read silently and flag their thinking while reading. Summarize steps Book orientation Guiding Questions: Observe how the teacher establishes two purposes for reading the text. First she prompts the students to read for comprehension. Then the teacher prompts the students to read for a strategy purpose. Why would the strategy prompt be important for struggling readers in an intervention group?

22 During Reading Students read independently and flag their thinking.
Teacher conducts 1-1 conferences, observing and recording reading strategies, listening for fluency and prompting for comprehension. Summarize steps Independent reading and teacher conferences Guiding questions: Observe the reading behaviors of the three students. What does their reading indicate about their comprehension? On the final reading conference: The student’s hesitations on particular types of words provide the teacher with a window on the student’s processing. Discuss the student’s responses and the teacher’s prompting. 22

23 After Reading Students respond in log (tab 2) to a special comprehension or a problem-solving strategy prompt that promotes self-reflection (metacognition). • Teacher brings the phase to closure by summarizing the learning. Summarize Watch video clip In this clip, the students use the strategy checklist as a resource by underlining strategies they used durng independent reading and providing written evidence from the text. Why is it important for struggling readers to use response logs and strategy checklists. How can these resources be used to promote the students’ self-reflection activity?

24 DVD Chapter 2: Reading Phase Two
Text Map Book Discussion Comprehension Prompt After going through reading phase one, students use their text to fill out a text map independently, with teacher support as needed, and continue with a book club discussion and comprehension prompt.

25 Refer to handout

26 Completing Text Map Students complete individual text map in reading log (tab 3). Teacher and students use this information to prepare for the book discussion. Summarize Guiding Questions: Observe how the teacher interacts with the students as they complete their text map. How does she use this component as an opportunity for individual conferences? How will her observations of individual students’ learning provide data for progress monitoring? Discuss how the mapping activity serves as a scaffold for supporting the book discussion.

27 Before the Discussion Teacher reviews conversational moves on anchor chart. Teacher might focus on particular conversational moves for today’s discussion. summarize 27

28 During the Discussion • Teacher and students engage in book discussion. Teacher prompts students to discuss texts at deep levels by providing some specific higher level comprehension prompts. Teacher prompts students to use conversational language while discussing the text. Summarize Guiding Questions: The book discussion component is approximately 10 minutes, but this clip focuses on a shorter segment for analysis. Observe the interaction and collect evidence of the students’ learning. Is the teacher’s initiating prompt appropriate for encouraging discussion? Why do you think the teacher began with the prompt from the independent reading? How do the students build on one another’s comments? What is the teacher’s role in the discussion? Listen to her prompts and discuss their value for promoting the students’ deeper comprehension. 28

29 After the Discussion Students respond in log (tab 1) to a special comprehension prompt that assesses deep comprehension of text. Summarize Watch video clips Guiding Questions for Comprehension prompt: How does this component provide systematic data for monitoring the students’ comprehension over time? Why did the teacher insert the written prompt in the log? Would a verbal prompt have provided the same assessment data? Discuss how progress monitoring and charting of students’ learning is a feature of an intervention group? 29

30 Getting Ready for Writing Phase
Focus Unit for Personal Narrative Following the reading phases, after completing the reading phases with a few books, or a chapter book, CFG will go into the writing phase for up to two weeks

31 During Writing: Assess & Prompt for Strategy Use

32 Materials for Writing Phases
Mentor Texts for each Genre Chart Tablet for Constructing Charts Large Paper for Group Activity with Text Maps Individual Text Maps for Writing Student Response Logs with Tabs Reproducible Copies for Student Logs (Text Maps & Charts) Strategic Prompts for Word-Solving Crafting Prompts for Deeper Reflection

33 Mentor Texts for Focus Study
Use mentor texts from reading phases

34 Large Chart Paper for Co-Constructed Charts

35 Large Text Map for Writing Aloud

36 Individual Text Maps

37 Response Log With Four Tabs
My Thinking My Strategies Text Maps Goal: Is two fold: In reading workshop, we want the children to read texts, apply appropriate comprehending processes and respond to their thinking in their log. It is also a way for the teacher to assess the students comprehending processes and to look for patterns of responding across the student’s log and to plan for further instruction. Text Guides 37 37

38 Prompts for Word Solving Crafting Strategies
Circle the strategies you used today in your writing to enhance comprehension for your readers. Give evidence from your writing to support your answer. I used details to help my readers visualize and comprehend. I used specific nouns to help my readers visualize. I used strong verbs to make my images come alive. I used a variety of sentence lengths for effect. I used figurative language to help my readers visualize.

39 Writing… The mirror side of reading
Writing Study begins after students have completed Book Study for 3 or more books

40 Writing Phase = Writing Process
Approximately two weeks to prepare a piece of writing for publication

41 Principles of the Writing Phase
Text guides are useful for planning writing. Writing-aloud provides a clear model of the writing process. Writers develop a piece of writing by taking it through the writing process. Mentor texts are used to teach writing craft. Strategy prompts provide writers with a scaffold for guiding and assessing performance. Teacher conferences focus on assisting the writer to improve.

42 Prepare for the Writing Process
Refer to handout Prepare for the Writing Process

43 Preparing for the Writing Phase
Teacher and students review the text structure for the genre. Teacher and students choose an idea to write about for the group writing (writing aloud). Teacher and students use a ‘text guide’ to plan their writing. Summarize Plan for Writing: Guiding Questions: Observe how the teachers prompts the students to write about a common (and recent) experience. Why is this important? How will the background influence the quality of the group composition including the student’s ability to use descriptive language? Observe how the teacher uses explicit language to build deliberate bridges between the reading and writing processes. Discuss how the mapping experience will provide a scaffold for organizing the group text. 43

44 Preparing for the Writing Phase
Teacher and students use the ‘text guide’ to draft and revise their group piece, using their knowledge of text structure, composing strategies, crafting techniques, and language use and conventions to prepare their piece for an audience. Teacher guides the writing process as the students reflect on the completed piece and the process itself. Summarize Writing Aloud Guiding Questions: Observe how the teacher involves the students in the group composition. How did the previous component with the text guide prepare the students to contribute to the group composition? 44

45 Preparing for the Writing Phase
Students list ideas for writing their own personal narrative. Teacher provides each student with a “text guide” to plan for independent writing. Summarize Watch video clips of prepare for writing phase Idea List Guiding Questions: Observe the teaching and learning interaction throughout the episode. What are the students learning? How does the teacher provide a balance of group and individual support? 45

46 Phase Three: Writing Process

47 Refer to handout

48 Phase Three: Strategy Lesson Before Independent Writing
Teacher uses the same mentor text to present a writing strategy lesson. Teacher prompts students to verbalize the composing strategies used by the author to help his/her readers comprehend. Teacher may record strategies on an anchor chart. Summarize Mini-lesson on craft Guiding Questions: During the mini-lesson on crafting, the students are able to analyze the author’s writing at a deeper level? What are the students learning about the craft of writing? How will this help them in crafting their own personal narratives? How does the teacher prompt them to be specific in their language descriptions? 48

49 During Writing Process
Students use “text guides” to assist with composing message. Teacher conducts 1-1 conferences, observing, prompting and recording composing strategies, and listening for fluency of thinking. Summarize Independent Writing and conferences: Guiding Questions: Observe how the teacher prompts the students to articulate their thinking about the writing process. How does the teacher meet the needs of the individual students during the writing conferences? 49

50 Strategy Prompt for Self-Assessment
Students respond in log to a special writing strategy prompt. Teacher brings the writing to closure by summarizing the learning. Summarize Writing strategy prompt: Guiding Questions: What are the students learning about crafting their writing? How does the writing strategy checklist promote independence and self-reflection in writing? 50

51 Phase Three: After Writing
Students share their writing with the group. Students provide feedback to authors. Summarize Watch video clips 51

52 Key Concepts of Comprehension Focus Groups
Over a sustained period of time (6-9 weeks), the students read and compare texts within the genre study. A collection of texts are earmarked as mentor texts and used as models for reading and writing. The teacher gives students a precision prompt to focus their thoughts for writing in their response logs. The students read numerous texts within the genre, and engage in book discussions with the teacher, comparing the similarities and differences within and across texts. The teacher meets individual reading needs through one-to-one conferences. The goal is that students develop deeper knowledge of how authors write to help readers comprehend their messages. Final thoughts 3-2-1 handout if time Additional handouts on table- blank planner for CFG and Comprehension Strategy checklist District Points reminder Staff development evaluation

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