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Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID and CPR."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is …..? First Aid – the emergency care given to a victim of an accident or a sudden illness, required immediately and must continue until advanced medical help is available. Can be simple like helping someone clean and bandage a minor wound to performing CPR until EMS arrives. CPR – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

3 General Principles of First Aid
1. Never panic! Take a few slow deep breaths and look around to make sure the area is safe Determine what resources are available and what is needed (AED, splints, EMS…) 2. Evaluate the Situation Check the victim’s level of consciousness, open the victim's airway and check for breathing, check for pulse and bleeding 3. Is the victim in a safe environment, free from more danger?

4 General Principles of First Aid
4. Determine the Priorities of treatment Which condition requires the most immediate care Urgent care for life – threatening situations: stopped breathing, heart attack, shock, serious wounds, poisoning, serious burns Non-life threatening issues: fracture of arm or leg, minor contusions or lacerations (know definitions 5. Decide what care is needed and do only what you are trained to do Good Samaritan Law 6. Call 911 or send for help

5 Life Threatening Situations
Obstructed Airway, choking (closed airway, stopped or not breathing) When an object blocks the airway leading to the lungs Partial obstruction – some air can be moved. Do not interfere with coughing or try to dig out the object Complete obstruction – no air can be moved. Victim is suddenly unable to breathe, cough or speak, clutches neck, or is struggling to breathe

6 Life Threatening Situations
Obstructed Airway, choking (closed airway, stopped or not breathing) What to do for a conscious victim … 1. Ask “Are you choking?” Observe victim coughing or wheezing. Do not interfere if good air exchange is present 2. Give abdominal thrusts…. Videos Adult conscious Adult unconscious Child

7 Life Threatening Situations
Heart Attack Early warning signs Squeezing feeling in the chest, pressure, or tightness “feels like a band is around chest” “feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest” Persistent discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, arm, neck, jaw, or across the chest Sweating, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, or feeling faint

8 Life Threatening Situations
Heart Attack What do you do? Call for advanced life support (EMS or doctor depending on the setting) Get an AED Monitor the symptoms until help arrives. Heart and breathing may stop and the patient may need CPR

9 Life Threatening Situations
Serious Wounds Life threatening due to heavy bleeding Bleeding that spurts is from an artery Venous bleeding is also serious Victim will bleed to death if the bleeding is not controlled

10 Life Threatening Situations
Serious Wounds What to do…… 1. Call or send for help 2. Follow procedures for preventing shock 3. Apply direct pressure with your gloved hand and some type of dressing or gauze pad. A shirt or towel will work if nothing else is available 4. Elevate the wounded area if you do not think there are broken bones 5. if these do not work apply pressure to the appropriate pressure point above and on the same limb of the wound 6. If the dressing becomes saturated add dry dressing over the saturated bandage 7. When bleeding is under control slowly release the pressure point and lower the limb, but keep direct pressure over the dressing

11 Pressure Points to Control Bleeding

12 Life Threatening Situations
Shock Caused by major loss of body fluid or blood causing the body cells and major organs to be deprived of oxygen A person can be appropriately treated for injury but still die of shock because of the fluid or blood loss

13 Life Threatening Situations
Shock Procedure page 298

14 Life Threatening Situations
Poisoning Ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection of a harmful substance Can cause sudden collapse, vomiting, and difficult breathing Look around the victim for possible causes of poisoning as you are treating him or her An unconscious victim may be convulsing or vomiting which is why you lay the victim on their side

15 Life Threatening Situations
Poisoning Procedure page 298 Procedure page 299

16 Life Threatening Situations
Burns See page 299 for pictures of severity of burns Severity of Burns 1st degree- superficial or surface burns 2nd degree – partial thickness, deeper or just below the surface of the skin. Blistering occurs 3rd degree – full thickness, destroys both surface and underlying tissue, destroys nerve endings so victim may not feel pain in that area Burns around the nose and mouth can mean the airway is burned

17 Life Threatening Situations
Treating burns Procedure page 300

18 Non-Life Threatening Situations
Bone Fractures Closed fracture – a broken bone that stays inside the body Symptoms – swelling, pain, change in the color of the skin, deformity Determine mechanism of injury – did they fall, did something fall on them? Did they hear a “snap”? Open Fracture – when the broken bones comes through the skin If possible splint the affected area and call for medical assistance

19 Dressings and Bandages
Dressings cover wounds and help keep infectious bacteria out Dressings are used to apply direct pressure to control bleeding Bandages hold dressings in place

20 Dressings and Bandages
Principles of Bandaging Always wear gloves and follow Standard Precautions Never tie a bandage around the neck, taping is safer The bandage needs to be tight enough to hold the dressing in place but not tight enough to stop circulation Check skin temperature. If cold then bandage may be cutting off circulation. You should be able to fit one finger under the bandage

21 Dressings and Bandages
Principles of Bandaging When applying these to arms or legs leave the finders and toes exposed so that you can watch for discoloration and swelling Loosen bandages if the patient complains of numbness or tingling Do not remove dressing once it has been applied. If blood soaks through, add another layer of dressings and secure the bandage

22 Dressings and Bandages
Principles of Bandaging Procedures Copy the following procedures into your notes Procedure pg 302 Applying a splint Procedure pg 304 Circular bandaging of a small leg or arm wound Procedure pg 305 Spiral bandaging of a large wound Procedure pg 306 Bandaging of an ankle or foot wound

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